Sunday, May 10, 2015

Ayurvedic Herbs and Medicne -Part 3

Hundreds of Ayurvedic Herbs and their names in many languages, medical usage with way of usage and for what cause….please read and use them in your daily life time they never harm you only give you profit in health……
Common name: Quick Weed, gallant soldier, potato weed, small-flower galinsoga • Manipuri: হমেঙ শমপাকপী Hameng shampakpi • Tamil: மூக்குத்தி பூ Mookuthi Poo
Botanical name: Galinsoga parviflora    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Tridax parviflora
Quick Weed is a slender annual herb 20-70 cm tall, found mostly in NE India. Leaves ovate or narrowly ovate, 2-5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, margins serrulate or entire. Flower-heads 3-4 mm high, peduncles appressed pubescent or glandular villous; involucral bracts 2-3 mm long; ray florets white, 5 per head, rarely pink, 3-toothed, 1-2 mm long; pappus of ray florets absent or very reduced, that of disk florets consisting of blunt-tipped, fimbriate scales. Achenes sparsely appressed pubescent or glabrous.
Medicinal uses: In Manipur, extract of leaves with salt is given in fever, diarrhoea and vomitting. Leaves of this plant, along with those of Ageratum conyzoides, Drymaria cordata, ginger are made into a paste and applied as a remedy for snake-bite by the Khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya.
Common name: Patthar Suva • Hindi: Patthar-suva, seri • Kannada: parpataka, kallu suseege, parpaataka, ghattarasva • Marathi: phattar-suva, seri, patharasuva • Sanskrit: Charak, Parpata, Pithari, Renu • Tamil: parapalanam • Telugu: parapalanam
Botanical name: Glossocardia bosvallia    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Verbesina bosvallia
Patthar Suva is a small annual herb, 10-20 cm tall. The plant is branched from the base and the branches are grooved. Alternately arranged leaves, 1.5 cm long, are pinnately cut in to linear segments. Yellow flowers are borne in heads carried on slender stalks, in leaf axils or at the end of branches. Outer 3 bracts are 3 mm long, 3 inner ones are 7 mm long, striped. Seedpods are 6 mm, brown, hairy. Flowering: August-December.
Medicinal uses: Pithari plant is used as an emmenagogue in medicine. In Ayurveda, the plant is used as a substitute for Oldenlandia corymbosa. The tribal inhabitants of western Maharashtra use a decoction of the plant as febrifuge. A paste of the fresh Pithari plant is applied to promote healing of sores and wounds. It has a bitter taste and fennel like odour. Besides serving as a medicinal plant Pithari plant is also used in culinary purposes. People of some states in India take Pithari plant as a vegetable.
Common name: Madras Carpet • Hindi: Mustaru, Bhediachim • Manipuri: লৈবুংগৌ Leibungou •Marathi: Mashipatri • Tamil: Masipathri • Malayalam: Nilampala • Telugu: మస్తరు Mastaru •Kannada: Davana • Bengali: Namuti • Gujarati: Jhinkimudi
Botanical name: Grangea maderaspatana    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Artemisia maderaspatana, Perdicium tomentosum
Madras Carpet is a herb commonly seen in flat bunches in harvested fields, dry river and pond beds. This hairy, branched herb spreads from the roots and grows up to 70 cm in height. The buds are white and woolly. The leaves are alternate, stalkless, deeply cut, and divided into toothed lobes. Yellow flowering heads are borne opposite the leaves, and are short- stalked, rounded, and 8-10 mm across. The flowers are small, very numerous. The involucral-bracts are ovate, thick, rigid, and hairy. The achenes are cylindric, glandular, and about 2 mm long. The papus-hairs are connate, ending in a short, fimbriate tube.
Medicinal uses: Leaves are regarded in India as a valuable stomachic possessing deobstruent and antispasmodic properties, and are prescribed as an infusion and an electuary in cases of obstructed menses and hysteria.
Common name: Hill Gynura • Manipuri: তেরাপাঈবী Terapaibi • Marathi: कुसुंबी Kusimbi
Botanical name: Gynura cusimbua    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Gynura angulosa, Cacalia cusimbua
Hill Gynura is a tall succulent herb, growing to 1-2 m tall. Angular stems are 1 cm thick, branched at the top. Alternately arranged leaves are 10-20 cm long. Upper leaves are stalkless, oblong and toothed. Lower leaves are bigger and lance-like. Numerous yellow flower-heads occur in in corymsb, carried on slender peduncles. There are a few bracts below the flower-heads. Flowers are 1.5-2 cm across. This herb is commonly found in roadsides, fields and grassy slopes in Imphal and other places of Manipur. Flowering: August-November.
Medicinal uses: The juice of stem and leaves are applied to fresh wounds for stopping bleeding and fast healing in traditional medicines. The leaf paste is also applied to forehead to relive headache and used as sedative drug by the local people
Common name: Stem Clasping Ligularia, Ligularia
Botanical name: Ligularia amplexicaulis    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
A perennial that grows to 1.0 meter high by 0.5 meters wide. The leaves are large and green, and seem to clasp the stem. Flowers are carried on erect stems above the foilage. The flowers are large, shaggy, narrow-petalled yellow daisies which appear in loose, flat-topped sprays in mid-summer
Medicinal uses: The stems, leaves and flowers are used in Tibetan medicine, they are said to have an astringent taste and a cooling potency. Digestive and emetic, they are used in the treatment of vomiting from indigestion.
Common name: Chamomilla, German chamomile, Chamomile, Wild chamomile • Urdu: Roghan babunah, Gul-babunah
Botanical name: Matricaria chamomilla    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Chamomilla recutita
Chamomilla is an annual herb 8–60 cm tall. The plant is aromatic when bruised. Stems are erect or rising, branched. Leaf blades are 0.5-7.8 cm long, very narrow, needle or thread-like. Flower-heads are daisy-like, 1-1.5 cm across, borne singly on long stalks, 2-5 cm. The central disk is yellow and prominently convex, obovoid or spheroid to ovoid. Ray florets are 14–26, white, 7-8.5 mm long, 2.4-3.3 mm wide. As the flower ages, the ray florets start pointing up. Chamomilla is native to Europe.
Medicinal uses: Chamomilla is a widely recognized herb in Western culture. Its medicinal usage dates back to antiquity where such notahles as Hippocrates, Galen, and Asclepius made written reference to it. A common ingredient today in herbal teas because of its calming, carminative, and spasmolytic properties, it is also a popular ingredient in topical health and beauty products tor its soothing and anti-inflammarory effects on skin.
Common name: Rasna • Hindi: Phaar • Kannada: Chithramoolaka • Marathi: रसना Rasna, Rashna • Sanskrit: Elaparni, रसना Rasna, Rasya, Sreyasi, सुगंधा Sugandha, सुरभी Surabhi, surasa, suvaha, युक्ता yukta • Telugu: Rasna
Botanical name: Pluchea lanceolata
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Berthelotia lanceolata
Rasna is an undershrub, growing up to 1.5 m tall, with whitish or greyish branches. Leaves are sessile, 1-7 cm long, 0.3-2 cm wide, oblong-invert-ed-lanceshaped, with a tiny point at the tip, leathery, minutely velvety on both surfaces. Margin is entire or obscurely toothed at the tip. Flower-heads are purplish, ovoid or bell-shaped, 3-5 mm in diameter, arranged in compound corymbs at the end of branches. Phyllaries are 2-3 seriate, outer ones purple tinged at the apex, broadly, obovate, obtuse, entire, pubescent, 2.5-3.5 mm long, silky pubescent, inner linear entire, 4-6 mm long. Florets are pink, outer female florets many, thread-like, disc florets tubular, few, 4-18, bisexual but functionally male. The one-seeded fruit is small, white, linear, hairless. Pappus hairs 20-26, distinctly fused at base. Flowering: March-August.
Medicinal uses: Rasna is a medicinal herb in Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. The plant is used for the inflammations and bronchitis, psoriasis, cough and piles. It is also used as antipyretic, analgesic, laxative and nervine tonic. The decoction of plant is used to prevent the swellings of joint in arthritis, rheumatism and neurological diseases. The roots are antipyretic, bitter, laxative and thermogenic and are used for allaying the pain caused by the sting of scorpions.
Common name: Costus • Hindi: Kuth कुठ
Botanical name: Saussurea costus
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Aucklandia costus, Aplotaxis lappa, Saussurea lappa
Costus is a tall perennial herb, well known as a medicinal plant. Stems up to 2 m tall, or more. Lower leaves are long-stalked, pinnate, 30-40 cm long, with a trianglular terminal leaflet, up to 30 cm long. Upper leaves are smaller, up to 30 cm long, stem-clasping. All leaves are irregularly toothed. There is a rounded cluster of a few purple flower-heads at the top of the stem. The flower-heads look like balls covered with purple bracts. Costus is frequently cultivated in the Himalayas as a medicinal plant. It is found in the Himalayas, from pakistan to Himachal Pradesh, at altitudes of 2000-3300 m. Flowering: July-August.
Medicinal uses: Costus is widely used in several indigenous systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments, like asthma, inflammatory diseases, ulcer and stomach problems.


Common name: Kasturi Kamal • Hindi: कस्तूरी कमल Kasturi Kamal • Nepali: कपासे फूल Kapase phool
Botanical name: Saussurea gossypiphora    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Kasturi kamal plant looks like a wooly snow-ball. It is a densely white- or grey-wooly more or less globular high altitude plant. Stem 10-20 sm, stout, hollow, enlarged club-shaped and densely leafy above, base covered with black shining leaf bases. Leaves linear, coarsely toothed or lobed, embedded in dense wooly hairs. Flower-heads purple, cylindrical 1.3-2 cm long, deeply embedded in woolly hairs and densely clustered at the top of the stem. Kasturi kamal is native to the Himalayas, and found at altitudes of 4300-5600 m.
Medicinal uses: The wool of this herb is applied to cuts, where it sticks compactly, seals the wound, and stops the bleeding.


Common name: Kaliziri • Hindi: Murang, Kaliziri, Batula
Botanical name: Saussurea heteromalla
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Saussurea candicans, Cirsium heteromallum
Kaliziri is a perennial herb commonly found in Western Himalayas, at altitudes of 550-4000 m. Flower-heads are erect, pinkish-purple, borne on long cottony stalks in open clusters on stems 2-5.5 ft. Flower-heads are 1.5-2 cm long, with bracts lanceshaped, long-pointed. Upper leaves are oblong, entire or toothed. Lower ones are mostly deeply lobed, white cottony beneath, 6-20 cm long. Flowering: March-August.
Medicinal uses: Leaf paste with mustard oil is rubbed on leucoderma and wounds. Root extract is taken for fever and colic. The seeds are carminative and used for horse-bites.
Common name: Brahma Kamal ब्रह्म कमल (Hindi)
Botanical name: Saussurea obvallata    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
The Brahma Kamal, the much reverred flower of the Himalayas, is an excellent example of plant life at the upper limit of high mountains (3,000-4,600 m). The flowerheads are actually purple, but are enclosed in layers of greenish-yellow, papery, boat-shaped bracts. The flowers bloom at the height of the monsoons and abundant in high-altitude places like The Valley of Flowers. The bract-cover provides the warm space needed to bloom in the cold mountains. The flowers are used as offering in the hill temples, like the shrines of Badrinath. The thick curved root of the plant is applied to bruises and cuts, as part of local medicine. Brahma Kamal is the state flower of Uttarakhand. A postal stamp was issued by the Indian Postal Department to commemorate this flower.
Common name: Snow Lotus
Botanical name: Saussurea tridactyla
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Snow Lotus was discovered by Bower at an elevation of 19,000 ft. In parts of Sikkim, where Himalayan conditions of climate prevail, we have a completely different class of flora. This where plants like the Snow lotus are found. The snow lotus is a high altitude plant (over 12,000 feet above sea level) with brilliant white flowers appearing over dark green leaves which grow through the rocks of mountain peaks. The flowers form in a dense head of small capitula, often completely surrounded in dense white to purple woolly hairs; the individual florets are also white to purple. The wool is densest in the high altitude species, and aid in thermoregulation of the flowers, minimising frost damage at night, and also preventing ultraviolet light damage from the intense high altitude sunlight. The term Snow Lotus is also used for related species S. involucrata and S. laniceps.
Medicinal uses: The whole plant is harvested in July and August to yield the herb that is used as a tonic for weakness, a therapy for menstrual disorders, and a remedy for arthritis. Due to the harsh environment of the snow lotus and the strong demand for its use in traditional herbalism, the snow lotus has become quite rare. Snow Lotus is native to the Himalayas.
Common name: St Paul’s Wort, Indian weed, sigesbeckia, small yellow crown-beard, yellow crown-head • Hindi: Lechkuri, Gobariya, Liskura, Lichakura • Marathi: Katampu • Tamil: Karuntumpai • Nepali: दुधे झार Dudhe Jhaar
Botanical name: Sigesbeckia orientalis
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Siegesbeckia orientalis, Minyranthes heterophylla
St Paul’s Wort is a small annual herb, growing up to 2-4 ft tall. Stem and branches are velvety, purple. Oppositely arranged leaves, 5-10 cm long, are triangular-ovate, sharp tipped, with toothed margin. The flowers heads are small with five bracts just below them, which are covered with very sticky glandular hairs. The secretion continues till after the fruit is ripe and aids in its distribution – the whole flower-head breaks off and attaches itself to some passing animal. The flowering heads are yellow, small, somewhat rounded, and 5-6 mm in diameter. The ray flowers are red beneath, very short, curved back, and 3-toothed. The achenes are each enclosed in a boat-shaped bractlet which is hairless but slightly rough. St Paul’s Wort is found in India at altitudes of 400-2700 m. Flowering: October-November.
Medicinal uses: The juice of the fresh herb is used as a dressing for wounds, over which, as it dries, it leaves a varnishing coating. A decoction of the leaves and young shoots is used as a lotion for ulcers and parasitic skin diseases.
Common name: Hare’s-lettuce, Milk thistle, Sow thistle • Hindi: दूधी Dudhi • Manipuri: খোমথোক্পী Khomthokpi
Botanical name: Sonchus oleraceus
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
The plant is an erect annual with simple branches. One particular feature about this sow thistle is that most of the plant is smooth and glabrous – without any hair or bristles. The stem is hollowed, and have a milky sap and its lower part usually gets a purple-brown colour later in spring. The leaves differ according age. The old (and hence lower) leaves are stalked, elongated and deeply lobed. In fact each lobe, nearly oppositely arranged along the leaf rachis, may appear to be a distinct leaf on its own. There are usually 2, 3 or 4 pairs of lobes per leaf and the terminal apical lobe is the largest and have a shape of a rounded arrow. The younger leaves also possess similar but smaller lobes. However these leaves are sessile, and have characteristic two pointed lobes (auricles) embracing the stem. Colour of the leaves vary from pale green to green-blue and may have a serrated outline but no prickles or hair. The fruits are simple achenes, brownish in colour, and oval/oblong in shape. They are wrinkled and possess obscure longitudinal ribs. At the apex they have a beakless pappus which helps seed dispersal by wind. The shape of involucral fruit is vase like – round bottomed with tapering apex and so differs from the cylindrical shape of the bud.
Medicinal uses: Plant is useful in liver diseases. Leaves and roots are used in indegestion as febrifuge; stem is used as sedative, tonic; root extract is used in ointments for ulcers and wounds. Gum produced by evaporating latex is used for ascites and hydrothorax.
Common name: East Indian Globe Thistle, Indian sphaeranthus • Hindi: Chhagul-nudi, गोरखमुंडी Gorakhmundi • Marathi: गोरखमुंडी Gorakhmundi • Tamil: Visnukkarantai • Malayalam: മിരംഗനീ Mirangani, Adakkamanian • Telugu: Boddatarapu • Kannada: ಮುಂಡೀ Mundi • Bengali: মুরমুরিযা Murmuriya • Urdu: Kamdaryus • Gujarati: ગોરખમુંડી Gorakhmundi • Sanskrit: महामुंडी Mahamundi, तपस्विनी Tapasvini, Palankasha
Botanical name: Sphaeranthus indicus
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
East Indian globe thistle is a much branched, strongly-scented annual herb with winged stem and the wings toothed. Alternately arranged obovate-oblong leaves are narrowed at the base, dentate and serrate, 1-3 cm long. Flowers occur in purple spherical heads, 8-15 mm, consisting of numerous tiny flowers. Flowers are purple and the stamens pale-purple. Flowering: October-January.
Medicinal uses: According to Ayurveda, this herb is hot, laxative, digestible, tonic, fattening, alterative, anthelmintic and alexipharmic. It is used in insanity, tuberculosis, indigestion, bronchitis, spleen diseases, elephantiasis, anaemia, pain in uterus and vagina, piles, asthma, leucoderma, dysentery, vomiting, hemicrania, etc.
Common name: Feverfew, Featherfew, Featherfoil, Febrifuge plant, Midsummer daisy, Nosebleed, Wild chamomile, Wild quinine
Botanical name: Tanacetum parthenium    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Chrysantheim parthenium, Pyrethrum parthenium
Feverfew is a traditional medicinal herb which is found in many old gardens, and is also occasionally grown for ornament, which are then used in Christmas trees. Feverfew is herbaceous and perennial plant. The plant grows into a small bush up to around 18 inches high, with citrus-scented leaves and is covered by flowers reminiscent of daisies. It spreads rapidly, and they will cover a wide area after a few years. Leaves are ovate, pinnately cut, basal, hairy and up to 3 inches long, with 3 to 5 scalloped sections. Daisy-like flowerheads with white ray and yellowish disc florets to 1 inch across are held in dense corymbs. Various cultivars have been developed for ornamental purposes.
Medicinal uses: Feverfew has been used for reducing fever, for treating headaches, arthritis and digestive problems. It is hypothesised that by inhibiting the release of serotonin and prostaglandins, both of which are believed to aid the onset of migraines, feverfew limits the inflammation of blood vessels in the head.
Common name: Giant Mexican Sunflower, Japanese sunflower, Shrub sunflower, Tree marigold •Manipuri: লম নুমিতলৈ Lam numitlei • Marathi: कनकगोल Kanak gol
Botanical name: Tithonia diversifolia
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Giant Mexican Sunflower is an impressive member of the sunflower family, Asteraceae. Tithonia was named for Tithonus, a legendary Trojan loved by the dawn goddess Eos, who turned him into a grasshopper. Giant Mexican Sunflower is a perennial native of Mexico and Central America and is naturalized in India. It is a tall shrub, 1-3 m high. Stem is stout, erect, densely hairy. Alternately arranged broadly ovate leaves (lobed or simple) are 15-25 cm long. Large single flower-heads are orange-yellow, 10-15 cm across. In Manipur, flower-heads are used for wounds and bruises.
Common name: Coltsfoot • Garo: Kothamari, Kulamari • Hindi: Watpan
Botanical name: Tussilago farfara    Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Coltsfoot is a perennial herb propagating by seeds and rhizomes. It is often found in colonies of dozens of plants. The flowers, which superficially resemble dandelions, appear in early spring before dandelions appear. The leaves, which resemble a colt’s foot in cross section, do not appear usually until after the seeds are set. Thus, the flowers appear on stems with no apparent leaves, and the later appearing leaves then wither and die during the season without seeming to set flowers. The plant is typically 10-30 cm tall. Coltsfoot is found in the Himalayas at altitudes of 2800-3800 m.
Medicinal uses: Coltsfoot has been used medicinally as a cough suppressant. The name tussilagoitself means “cough suppressant.” The plant has been used historically to treat lung ailments such as asthma as well as various coughs by way of smoking. Crushed flowers supposedly cured skin conditions, and the plant has been consumed as a food product.
Common name: Chinese Wedelia • Hindi: पीला भंगरा Pilabhangara, Bhanra • Marathi: पिवला भंगरा Pivala-Bhangra • Tamil: Manjalkarilamkanni, Patalai kayyantakarai • Malayalam: Mannakkannunni •Telugu: Guntagalagara • Kannada: Gargari, Kalsarji • Bengali: Bhimra • Konkani: Birimgarsi •Sanskrit: पीतभ्रंग Pitabhrnga, Pitabhrngarajah
Botanical name: Wedelia chinensis
Family: Asteraceae (Sunflower family)
Synonyms: Solidago chinensis
Chinese Wedelia is a tender, spreading, and hairy herb, with the branches usually less than 50 cm long. The leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2-4.5 cm in length, and narrowed at both ends. The margins are entire or obscurely toothed; and both surfaces are covered with sharp-pointed, appressed, straight, and stiff hairs. The heads are stalked, about 1 cm in diameter, and yellow. The involucral bracts are oblong-ovate. The ray flowers are 8-12, spreading, about equal to the bracts, and broad; the disk flowers number about 20, and are short, narrow, and pointed. The achenes are nearly cylindric, and hairy.
Medicinal uses: The leaves are used in dyeing grey hair and in promoting the growth of hair. They are considered tonic, alternative, and useful in coughs, cephalalgia, skin diseases, and alopecia. The juice of the leaves is much used as a snuff in cephalalgia. The seeds and flowers, as well as the leaves, are used in decoction, in the quantity of half of teacupful twice daily, as a deobstruent. In decoction, the plant is used in uterine haemorrhage and menorrhagia.
Common name: Yellow Dots, Creeping daisy, Wedelia
Botanical name: Wedelia trilobata 
Family: Asteraceae (daisy/Sunflower family)
Yellow Dots is native to the northern part of South America and the West Indies. It is a creeping evergreen perennial that roots at the leaf nodes and spreads widely. The leaves are ovate and usually 3 lobed. The flower is a yellow daisy-like flower that is approximately 1 inch across. Plant creeps and roots at nodes, making a dense ground cover, as well as a great hanging basket. It grows well under trees but it will not tolerate wet soils.
Medicinal uses: In Suriname’s traditional medicine, wedelia is used to treat hepatitis, infections and to clear the placenta after birth.
Common name: East Himalayan Balsam
Botanical name: Impatiens arguta
Family: Balsaminaceae (Balsam family)
Synonyms: Impatiens gagei

East Himalayan Balsam is a beautiful wildflower found in the forests, thickets, grasslands in valleys, along canals and moist places, in East Himalayas, from E. Nepal to NE India, at altitudes of 1800-3200 m. It is a perennial plant, growing up to 70 cm tall. Erect stems are rigid and branched. Alternately arranged leaves, carried on 1-4 cm long stalks, are ovate or ovate-elliptic, 4-15 cm long, and 2-4.5 cm broad. Leaf margins are sharply toothed, and the tip is pointed or tapering. Flowers arise singly or doubly in leaf axils. Flower stalks are long, slender, often with 2 bracts at base. Flowers are pink or purple-red, large or medium- sized. Flowers are characterized by lower lobes of the lateral petals being divided into two. Lateral sepals are 4 – outer 2, with tip long cuspidate – inner 2, narrowly lanceshaped. Lower sepal is sac-like, narrowed into an incurved, short spur. Upper petal is circular. Lateral united petals are not clawed, 2-lobed. Basal lobes are broadly oblong; Farther lobes are shaped like the head of an axe, large, with a two parted tip. Flowering: July-October.
Medicinal uses: The flowers are used medicinally for dissolving clots, promoting diuresis, and treating abdominal pain, postpartum blood stasis, carbuncles, and difficulty in urination.
Common name: Chinese Balsam • Manipuri: মোৰেহ খুজঙ লৈ Moreh Khujang lei
Botanical name: Impatiens chinensis    Family: Balsaminaceae (Balsam family)
Synonyms: Impatiens cosmia, Impatiens crassicornu
Chinese Balsam is an annual herb, found in NE India, often beside ponds, streamsides, field margins and swamps, at altitudes of 100-1200 m. Plant grows up to 1-2 ft tall, with stem which erect in upper part, prostrate at the base, slender, hairless. Nodes are slightly swollen, with adventitious roots. Oppositely arranged leaves are stalkless or nearly so, narrow linear or linear-lanceshaped. Leaves are gray-green below, green on the upper side, 2-10 cm long, and only 0.5-1 cm wide, rigidly papery. Leaf margin has widely separated spiny teeth. Flowers arise either singly or 2-3 fascicled in leaf axils. Slender flower stalks are 2-4.4 cm. Flowers are large, purple-red or white. Lateral sepals are linear, 1 × 0.1 cm. Lower sepal is funnel-shaped, 1.5 cm deep, gradually narrowed into an incurved or involute, slender spur. Upper petal circular, 1 cm in diameter; lateral united petals are not clawed, 1.4-1.5 cm, 2-lobed; basal lobes nearly circular, small. Farther lobes are broadly obovate to axe-shaped, apex rounded-obtuse; auricle narrow. Stamens are 5, with linear filaments. Capsule is elliptic. Flowering: June-August.
Medicinal uses: The whole plant is used medicinally for relieving fever and pain, removing toxic materials, promoting blood circulation, treating diarrhea, curing urinary infections, and healing carbuncles. In Manipur, the plant is used externally in burns, and taken internally with milk in gonorrhea.
Common name: Chitra, Indian barberry, Tree turmeric, Nepal barberry • Hindi: चित्रा Chitra •Tamil: Mullukala • Malayalam: Maramanjal • Bengali: Darhaldi
Botanical name: Berberis aristata/chitria
Family: Berberidaceae (Barberry famil)
Chitra is an evergreen shrub found commonly in Garhwal and Himalayas. It grows to 4 m high and 0.5 m wide. Leaves, in tufts of 5-8, lance-like, simple spiny, toothed, leathery, stalkless, pointed, 4.9 cm long, 1.8 cm broad, deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. Spines (which, in fact, are modified leaves) are three-branched and 1.5 cm long. Flowers, stalked, yellow, in simple to corymbose raceme, with 11-16 flowers per cluster. The average diameter of a fully opened flower is 12.5 mm. Six yellow sepals (3 small, 3 large), with 6 petals, yellow, 4-5 mm long.
Medicinal uses: It is one of very important medicinal plants. Almost every part of this plant has some medicinal value. A bitter tonic antiperiodic and diaphoretic An infusion is used in the treatment of malaria, eye complaints, skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and jaundice. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery.
Common name: Indian Barberry, Boxthorn Barberry • Hindi: Darhaldi, Chatrol • Kumaon: Kirmora • Urdu: इशकीन Ishkeen, Kushmul, Zarch • Gujarati: કસમલ Kasmal
Botanical name: Berberis lycium    Family: Berberidaceae (Barberry family)
Indian Barberry is a semi deciduous shrub, 2-4 m high, leaves lanceolate or narrowly obovate-oblong, entire or with a few large spinous teeth, arranged alternately on stem. Inflorescence a raceme, flowers yellow born in axillary clusters longer than the leaves. Fruit, berries, black. Flowering: March-June
Medicinal uses: Indian Barberry’s roots are used as remedy for swollen and sore eyes, broken bones, wounds, gonorrhea, curative piles, unhealthy ulcers, acute conjunctive and in chronic opthalmia, also used as bitter tonic astringent, diaphoretic and febrifuge. Leaves are given in jaundice.
Common name: Nepal Mahonia, Indian barberry
Botanical name: Mahonia napaulensis
Family: Berberidaceae (barberry family)
Indian barberry is an evergreen shrub growing to 2.5m by 3m, with large, pinnately compound leaves. The leaves are about 18 in (46 cm) long with 9 to 13 stiff, sharply spiny, hollylike leaflets. The fragrant lemon-yellow flowers, appearing in late winter, are borne in erect racemes 3-6 in (7.6-15 cm) long. The fruit is a berry, first green, then turning bluish black with a grayish bloom. They are about a half inch long and hang in grapelike clusters. It is in leaf all year, in flower from March to April. Fruit is eaten raw or cooked. An acid flavour, but it is rather nice raw especially when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit can also be dried and used as raisins.
Medicinal uses: The fruits are said to be diuretic and demulcent. They are used in the treatment of dysentery. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic.
Common name: Calabash tree, Tiruvottukkay (Tamil), Sokeburude (Kannada)
Botanical name: Crescentia cujete    Family: Bignoniaceae (Bignonia family)
The Calabash tree is a small tree of multiple uses, originating from tropical America, now widely distributed in the tropics. The calabash tree grows to 30 feet often with multiple trunks. The rangy twisting branches have simple elliptical leaves clustered at the nodes. The greenish-yellow flowers are marked with purple veins. The flowers arise from the trunk or main branches and appear from May through January. The woody fruit, botanically a capsule, is elliptic, ovate, or spherical and may grow to 10 inches in diameter. The fruit takes up to seven months to ripen. Fibers from the calabash tree were twisted into twine and ropes. The hard wood made tools and tool handles. The split wood was woven for sturdy baskets. But it was the calabash’s gourd-like fruit that made the plant truly useful. Large calabashes were used as bowls and, peculiarly, to disguise the heads of hunters.
Medicinal uses: In Suriname’s traditional medicine, the fruit pulp is used for respiratory problems such as asthma.
Common name: Katsagon • Hindi: मरॊड़फली Marodphali
Botanical name: Haplophragma adenophyllum
Family: Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda family)
Synonyms: Bignonia adenophylla, Fernandoa adenophylla, Spathodea adenophylla
This tree is fairly common in Delhi. It is 15-20 m tall, trunk 15-25 cm in diam, large leaves 25-50 cm; leaflets 3-6 on each side of midrib, long elliptic, 8-14 X 2.5-6 cm. Large, pale yellow, trumpet shaped flowers occur in panicles. The flowers look very similar to those of Sausage tree, except for the color. The flowers mostly remain closed in the day and open up at night. The fruit is long and twisted, hanging like snakes from the branches.
Medicinal uses: The tree is extensively used in traditional medicine. As an ingredient in message oils, it is supposed to ease muscular tension.
Common name: Sausage Tree, Common Sausage Tree • Hindi: बलम खीरा Balam khira, झाड़ फ़ानूस Jhar fanoos • Kannada: Aanethoradu Kaayi, Mara Sowthae • Telugu: Enuga thondamu, Kijili, Naagamalle
Botanical name: Kigelia africana
Family: Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda family)
Synonyms: Crescentia pinnata, Kigelia pinnata
The blood-red flowers of the sausage tree bloom at night on long, ropelike stalks that hang down from the limbs of this tropical tree. The fragrant, nectar-rich blossoms are pollinated by bats, insects and sunbirds in their native habitat. The mature fruits dangle from the long stalks like giant sausages. They may be up to two feet long and weigh up to 6.8 kg. The flowers are seen hanging from the tree while they haven’t opened. After they open, they fall off quite soon. The fruit, while not palatable for humans, is popular with hippos, baboons, and giraffes. Mainly grown as a curiosity and ornamental, both for its beautiful deep red flowers and its strange fruit.
Medicinal uses: There are also a range of traditional uses for the fruit, varying from topical treatments for skin afflictions, to treatment for intestinal worms. There are some steroid chemicals found in the sausage tree that are currently added to commercially available shampoos and facial creams.
Common name: Roheda, Honey Tree, Desert Teak, Marwar Teak • Hindi: रोहेड़ा Roheda, Rohida •Marathi: Rakhtroda, Raktarohida • Sanskrit: Chalachhada, Dadimacchada, Dadimapuspaka
Botanical name: Tecomella undulata
Family: Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda family)
Synonyms: Tecoma undulata, Bignonia undulata
Roheda is a deciduous or nearly evergreen tree of desert or dry regions. It occurs on flat and undulating areas including gentle hill slopes and sometimes also in ravines. It thrives very well on stabilized sand dunes, which experience extreme low and high temperatures. Leaves are narrow, somewhat lance-shaped, with wavy margins, 5-12 cm long. In spring time it produces beautiful showy tubular flowers in yellow, orange and red colours. Fruit is a long, thin, slightly curved capsule up to 20 cm long, with winged seeds. Roheda is mainly used as a source of timber. Its wood is strong, tough and durable. It takes a fine finish. The wood is excellent for firewood and charcoal. Cattle and goats eat leaves of the tree. Camels, goats and sheep consume flowers and pods. Roheda plays an important role in ecology. It acts as a soil-binding tree by spreading a network of lateral roots on the top surface of the soil. It acts as a windbreak and helps in stabilizing shifting sand dunes. It is considered as the home of birds and provides shelter for other desert wildlife. Shade of tree crown is shelter for the cattle, goats and sheep during summer days.
Medicinal uses: The bark obtained from the stem is used as a remedy for syphilis. It is also used in curing urinary disorders, enlargement of spleen, gonorrhoea, leucoderma and liver diseases. Seeds are used against abscess.
Common name: Comfrey, black root, boneset, common comfrey, consolida, consound, knitbone, slippery root
Botanical name: Symphytum officinale
Family: Boraginaceae (Forget-me-not family)
Synonyms: Symphytum uliginosum
Comfrey is a perennial herb with a black, turnip-like root and large, hairy broad leaves that bears small bell-shaped white, cream, purple or pink flowers. It is native to Europe, growing in damp, grassy places, and is widespread throughout the British Isles on river banks and ditches. Comfrey has long been recognised by both organic gardeners and herbalists for its great usefulness and versatility; of particular interest is the “Bocking 14″ cultivar of Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum).
Medicinal uses: The herb contains allantoin, a cell proliferant that speeds up the natural replacement of body cells. Comfrey was used to treat a wide variety of ailments ranging from bronchial problems, broken bones, sprains, arthritis, gastric and varicose ulcers, severe burns, acne and other skin conditions. It was reputed to have bone and teeth building properties in children, and have value in treating ‘many female disorders’.
Common name: Indian Borage • Hindi: Chhota Kalpa • Gujarati: Undhanphuli • Kannada: Katte tume soppu • Tamil: Kallutaitumapi • Telugu: Guvvagutti • Marathi: Chota Kalpa • Sanskrit: Adhapuspi
Botanical name: Trichodesma indicum
Family: Boraginaceae (forget-me-not family)
This is an erect, spreading, branched, annual herb, about 50 centimeters in height, with hairs springing from tubercles. The leaves are stalkless, opposite, lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base. The flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves. The sepal tube (calyx) is green, hairy, and 1 to 13 centimeters long, with pointed lobes. The flower tube is pale blue, with the limb about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and the petals pointed. The fruit is ellipsoid, and is enclosed by the calyx. The nutlets are about 5 millimeters long, and rough on the inner surface. It is found throughout India, on roadsides and stony dry wastelands, upto 1,500 m.
Medicinal uses: The plant is acrid, bitter in taste. In herbal medicine jargon, it is thermogenic, emollient, alexeteric, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, carminative, constipating, diuretic, depurative, ophthalmic, febrifuge and pectoral. This herb is also used in arthralgia, inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dysentery, strangury, skin diseases and dysmenorrhoea.
Common name: Shepherd’s Purse, Cocowort, Blind weed
Botanical name: Capsella bursa-pastoris
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Shepherd’s Purse is originally from Europe, but has become very common in many parts of the world. The species name bursa-pastoris mean purse of the shepherd. This name refers to the fruit-capsule in the shape of a triangle, attached to slender stalk from its pointy end, with a notch on the top. Shepherd’s Purse grows in gardens, fields, waste grounds, and embankments with soils that are not too dry and that provide enough sunshine. This is rather a small plant, growing to 6-20 cm high. The basal leaves are lanceolate and dentate. The white flowers are arranged in loose racemes. Flowers are radially symmetrical with four petals. The seeds of this plant give off a viscous compound when moistened. Aquatic insects stick to it and eventually die. This can be used as a mosquito control method, killing off the mosquito larvae, and makes it a borderline carnivorous plant. The seeds, leaves, and root of this plant are edible. In China, it is commercially grown for consumption. Flowering: December-January.
Medicinal uses: In Manipur, it has been used to stop bleeding from internal organs.
Common name: London Rocket • Hindi: khubkaln, asalio, khubkhala • Sanskrit: khakasi, khubakala • Urdu: khubakalan
Botanical name: Sisymbrium irio
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
London Rocket is an annual herb more than 3 ft tall, with open, slender stem branches. The flowers are small with four pale yellow petals. The basal leaves are broad and often lobed, while the upper leaves are linear in shape and up to four inches long. The fruit is a long narrow cylindrical silique, which stays green when ripe. When dried the fruit has small red oblong seeds.
Medicinal uses: London Rocket is used in the Middle East to treat coughs and chest congestion, to relieve rheumatism, to detoxify the liver and spleen, and to reduce swelling and clean wounds.
Common name: Indian Olibanum, Indian frankincense • Gujarati: સાલેડી saaledi, સલાઈ ગૂગળ salaai gugul • Hindi: शल्लकी shallaki, kundur, luban • Kannada: ಗುಗ್ಗುಳ ಮರ guggula mara •Malayalam: കുങ്ങില്യം kungilyam • Marathi: धुपाळी dhupali, धूपसाळी dhupasali, कुरुंद kurunda, सालफळी salaphali, साळई salai, साळी sali • Oriya: salai • Sanskrit: भीषण bhishan, गुग्गुल guggula, हस्तिनशना hastinashana, पालंक palank, पार्वती parvati, ऱ्हादिनी hradini, कुरुन्द kurunda, सल्लकी sallaki, शल्लकी shallaki, स्रुवा sruva • Tamil: குமஞ்சம் kumancam, குங்கிலியம் kunkiliyam, மரத்துவெள்ளை marattu-vellai, பறங்கிச்சாம்பிராணி paranki-c-campi-rani, வெள்ளிக்கீரை vellai-k-kirai • Telugu: గుగ్గిలము guggilamu, పరంగిసాంబ్రాణిచెట్టు parangi-sambrani-chettu, సల్లకి sallaki • Urdu: kundur, lobana
Botanical name: Boswellia serrata    Family: Burseraceae (Torchwood family)
Synonyms: Boswellia glabra, Boswellia thurifera, Bursera thurifera
Indian Olibanum is a deciduous tree endemic to India and has been recorded on dry hills and slopes, on gravelly soils between an altitude range of 275-900 m. It is a medium sized tree, 3-5 m tall, with ash coloured papery bark. Alternately arranged leaves are pinnate, crowded at the end of branches, 20-40 cm long. There are 8-15 pairs of leaflets, 3-6 cm long, with an odd one at the tip. Leaflets are ovate, with toothed margin. Flowers are tiny, creamy, about 8 mm across, borne in 10-15 cm long racemes in leaf axils. There are 10 stamens with a short style and a 3-lobed stigma. Fruits are 2 cm long, 3-cornered. Indian Olibanum tree, on injury, exudates an oleo-gum-resin known as Salai, Guggal or Indian Frankincense. Flowering: January.
Medicinal uses: Extracts of Indian Olibanum have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, particularly for osteoarthritis of the knee. A Boswellia extract marketed under the name Wokvel has undergone human efficacy, comparative, pharmacokinetic studies. Indian Olibanum is used in the manufacture of the supposed anti-wrinkle agent “Boswelox”, which has been criticised as being ineffective.
Common name: Hatchet Cactus, Peyotillo, Woodlouse cactus
Botanical name: Pelecyphora aselliformis    Family: Cactaceae (Cactus family)
Synonyms: Mammillaria aselliformis, Anhalonium aselliforme, Ariocarpus aselliformis
Native to Mexico, Hatchet Cactus is a cylindric cactus with flattened elongated tubercles, arranged in spirals, and 40-60 spines. It presents a heavy and fleshy root and grayish green stem, globular when young but becoming cylindrical soon, of about 10 cm high and between 5 and 6 cm. wide. The areolas are woolly at first and present a great amount of small, non sharp spines, joined together with the base with the tip free. The flowers appear on apex, between the wool of the young areolas. They measure about 3 cm. wide and are violet. It is a very rare plant, since it grows very slowly and send offsets after many years only. Flowering: February-October.
Medicinal uses: Hatchet Cactus is a well known medicinal peyote sold in the markets of San Luís Potosí, Mexico, and is used as a remedy for fevers and rheumatic pains. Extracts have also been shown to have antibiotic activity.
Common name: Yellow Nicker, Gray nicker, nicker seed, bonduc nut, Fever nut, nicker bean •Hindi: कांटकरंज Kantkarej, कांटीकरंज Kantikaranja, कुबेराक्षी Kuberakshi • Marathi: सागरलता Sagarlata • Tamil: Kalichchikkai • Malayalam: Kalanchi • Telugu: Gachchakaya • Kannada: Gajikekayi •Sanskrit: लताकरंजः Latakaranjah, कुबेराक्षी Kuberakshi, कंटकीकरंजः Kantakikaranjah
Botanical name: Caesalpinia bonduc    Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Synonyms: Caesalpinia crista, Caesalpinia bonducella, Guilandina bonduc
Yellow Nicker is a large, thorny, straggling, shrub which behaves like a strong woody climber, taking support of trees. The branches are armed with hooks and straight hard yellow prickles. Leaves are large, double compound, with 7 pairs of pinnae, and each with 3-8 pairs of leaflets with 1-2 small recurved prickles between them on the underside. Flowers are yellow, in dense long-stalked racemes at the top. Fruits are inflated pods, covered with wiry prickles. Seeds are 1-2 per pod, oblong or globular, hard, grey with a smooth shiny surface. The hard and shiny seeds are green, turning grey.They are used for jewellery.
Medicinal uses: Fruits are tonic and antipyretic. Seeds yield a fatty oil used as a cosmetic and for discharges from the ear. Leaves and bark are febrifuge.
Common name: Amaltas, Golden shower tree, Indian Laburnum • Hindi: अमलतास Amaltas •Manipuri: চহুঈ Chahui • Tamil: கொன்றை Konrai • Malayalam: Vishu konnai • Marathi: बहावा Bahava • Mizo: Ngaingaw • Bengali: সোনালী Sonali, Bandarlati, Amultas • Urdu: املتاس Amaltas
Botanical name: Cassia fistula      Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
This native of India, commonly known as Amaltaas, is one of the most beautiful of all tropical trees when it sheds its leaves and bursts into a mass of long, grape-bunches like yellow gold flowers. A tropical ornamental tree with a trunck consisting of hard reddish wood, growing up to 40 feet tall. The wood is hard and heavy; it is used for cabinet, inlay work, etc. It has showy racemes, up to 2″ long, with bright, yellow, fragrant flowers. These flowers are attractive to bees and butterflies. The fruits are dark-brown cylindrical pods, also 2′ long, which also hold the flattish, brown seeds (up to 100 in one pod) These seeds are in cells, each containing a single seed. A postal stamp was issued by the Indian Postal Department to commemorate this tree.
Medicinal uses: The sweet blackish pulp of the seedpod is used as a mild laxative
Common name: Coffee Senna, coffeeweed, Negro coffee • Hindi: Kasunda, Bari kasondi • Marathi: ran-takda, kasivda, kasoda, rankasvinda • Tamil: Nattam takarai, Payaverai • Malayalam: Mattantakara • Telugu: Thangedu • Kannada: Kolthogache • Bengali: Kalkashunda • Oriya: Kasundri • Urdu: Kasonji • Assamese: Hant-thenga • Gujarati: Kasundri • Sanskrit: Kasamarda, Vimarda, Arimarda
Botanical name: Cassia occidentalis    Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Synonyms: Senna occidentalis
Coffee Senna is a smooth annual that can grow up to 2 m tall. The leaves are compound, leaflets, in 4-6 pairs, have a sharp tip. These leaflets are 2-9 cm long and 2-3 cm wide with a distinct gland 3-5 mm from the base of the stalk. Flowers occur in leaf axils. Sepals are green and 6-9 mm long. The petals are yellow and 1-2 cm long. The 6-7 stamens are of two different lengths. The seed pods are dark brown, 8 to 12 cm long, 7-10 mm wide and curve slightly upward. The seeds are dull brown, 4-5 mm long and flattened on both ends. The seeds can be roasted and made into a coffee-like drink.
Medicinal uses: The seed is bitter and has purgative properties. It is also used as a diuretic, liver detoxifier, as a hepato-tonic (balances and strengthens the liver). Further, used in whooping cough and convulsion.
Common name: Sita Ashok, Sorrowless tree • Hindi: सीता अशोक Sita Ashok, Ashok अशोक •Gujarati: Ashopalava • Kannada: Achenge • Malayalam: Hemapushpam • Marathi: Jasundi • Tamil: அசோகம் Asogam • Telugu: Asokamu
Botanical name: Saraca asoca    Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Synonyms: Jonesia asoka
Ashoka is one of the most legendary and sacred trees of India, and one of the most fascinating flowers in the Indian range of flower essences. Ashok is a Sanskrit word meaning without grief or that which gives no grief. Indigenous to India, Burma and Malaya, it is an erect tree, small and evergreen, with a smooth, grey-brown bark. The crown is compact and shapely. Flowers are usually to be seen throughout the year, but it is in January and February that the profusion of orange and scarlet clusters turns the tree into an object of startling beauty. Pinned closely on to every branch and twig, these clusters consist of numerous, small, long-tubed flowers which open out into four oval lobes. Yellow when young, they become orange then crimson with age and from the effect of the sun’s rays. From a ring at the top of each tube spread several long, half-white, half-crimson, stamens which give an hairy appearance to the flower clusters. In strong contrast to these fiery blooms is the deep-green, shiny foliage. The foot-long leaves each have four, five or six pairs of long, wavy-edged, leaflets. Young leaves are soft, red and limp and remain pendent even after attaining full size.
Medicinal uses: As one would expect from a tree of the country it has many useful medicinal properties. The juice obtained from boiling the bark is a cure for some ailments of women, and a pulp of the blossoms is one of the remedies used for dysentery.
Common name: Tanner’s Cassia • Hindi: Tarwar तरवड़ • Marathi: Tarwad तरवड • Kannada: Tangedi • Telugu: Tagedu • Tamil: Avaram • Gujarati: Awala • Malayalam: Avaram
Botanical name: Senna auriculata    Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Synonyms: Cassia auriculata
Tanner’s Cassia is a branched shrub, growing upto 1-1.5 m high. It has a smooth reddish brown bark. It has many ascending branches and 8-10 cm long pinnate leaves. There are 8-12 pairs of leaflets, each 2-3 cm long. Bright yellow flowers appear in recemes at the end of branches. The flowers are 4-5 cm across. Upper three stamens are reduced to stamenoides. Fruit is a 7-12 cm long, flat brown pod.
Medicinal uses: In Ayurveda, the root of this plant is used in a decoction for fevers, diabetes, diseases of the urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flower and flower buds are used as substitute.
Common name: Stinking Cassia, Chinese senna, foetid cassia, Java bean, low senna, peanut weed, sickle senna, sicklepod • Assamese: Bon medelua, Dari diga, Medeluwa • Bengali: Panevar, Chakunda • Hindi: Panwar, Chakunda, Chakvat • Kannada: Sogata • Malayalam: Sakramardakam •Manipuri: থৌনম নমথীবী Thaunum namthibi • Marathi: Takla, Tankala • Mizo: Kelbe-on • Oriya: chakunda • Tamil: சேநாவு Senavu • Urdu: Panwar, Panevar, Tarota
Botanical name: Senna tora    Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Synonyms: Cassia tora
Stinking Cassia is a small erect hairlesss shrub, about 1 m tall, commonly found growing wild on roadsides. True to its name, foetid/stinking cassia has a disagreeable smell. It is widely spreading with numerous ascending, hairless branches. The compound leaves are arranged spirally and usually have three pairs of symmetrically egg-shaped leaflets up to 2 inches long. One to three yellow flowers appear on short axillary stems. The linear pods grow to 8 inches long, curve downward and contain many shiny, angular seeds. It occurs abundantly in open pastures, and is very common on roadsides and wasteland. In organic farms of India, Stinking Cassia is used as natural pesticide.
Medicinal uses: According to Ayurveda, the leaves and seeds are useful in leprosy, ringworm, flatulence, colic, dyspepsia, constipation, cough, bronchitis, cardiac disorders.
Common name: Kashmir Bellflower
Botanical name: Codonopsis ovata    Family: Campanulaceae (Bell flower family)
Synonyms: Glosocomia ovata, Wahlenbergia roylei
Kashmir Bellflower is a beautiful plant with slender erect stems bearing single milky-blue bell-shaped flower at the top, looking down. Sepals spread outwards, less than half as long as the flower. Flowers are 1.5-3.5 cm long, gradually widening to the mouth, with broad triangular out-curved lobes. Leaves are 1-3 cm, short-stalked, ovate hairy. They give out a very pungent smell when crushed. Flowering stems are 15-20 cm long. Kashmir Bellflower is found in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Kashmir, at altitudes of 3000-4200 m. Flowering: July-August.
Medicinal uses: The roots and leaves are used to make a poultice for the treatment of bruises, ulcers and wounds.

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