Thursday, April 6, 2017
Wednesday, March 29, 2017
Wednesday, November 16, 2016
Garlic is one of the veggies you should eat every day. It packs powerful compounds that destroy cancer cells, as confirmed by the American Institute for Cancer Research.
some of ailments you can treat with garlic:
- Helicobacter Pylori infection
- Candida (Yeast) infection
- Thrush (Fungal overgrowth in the mouth)
- Mycotoxin-associated aflatoxicosis
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
- Klebsiella infection
- HIV-1 infection
- Vibrio infection
- Pseudomonas Aerigonosima (and drug-resistant strains as well)
- Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, multi-drug resistant Clostridium infection
- Cytomegalovirus infections
- Viral infections (Herpes Simplex 1 and 2, Parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 2)
- Group B Streptococcus Infection
If you decide to try the garlic treatment, make sure you eat 5-6 crushed garlic cloves per day. You can eat more, if it works for you. One garlic bulb provides about 12 cloves.
Let our garlic rest for 15 minutes after you have crushed it. This is the time it takes for the release of the enzyme that produces the antifungal and anticancer compounds.
You can eat garlic with your food, both raw and cooked, but some researchers believe that garlic supplements does not provide the same anticancer and antifungal effect.
The biomedical database MEDLINE, released by the National Library of Medicine, offers 4245 study abstracts based on garlic.
This data confirms that garlic can help in the treatment of over 150 health conditions. This includes diabetes, infection, plaque buildups in arteries, DNA damage caused by mercury poisoning and other ailments.
Garlic can also help in 167 health conditions or symptoms, but most studies involve the power of garlic to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and cancer. These are the two major causes of death in high-income countries. This research is available on Greenmedinfo.com.
Cheap, safe and tasty natural remedies like garlic have saved so many lives. Logically, these remedies were as expensive as gold.
Source: Bare Natural Truth
Saturday, November 5, 2016
Ancient Indians were not fool treating diseases and preventing with herbs. One of that is we are talking about is Cilantro-
Cilantro is one of the most effective and gentle detoxifiers of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants. It is excellent for extracting mercury from your body’s organs. Heavy metals have been linked to serious health problems such as cancer, heart disease, brain deterioration, emotional problems, kidney disease, lung disease, and weak bones.
Cilantro is a rich source of minerals, such as potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and magnesium. It contains high amount of vitamins A and K. It is also a proven antiseptic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory; it can help quickly reduce infection and inflammation as it works to clear your system.
Sunday, October 30, 2016
What is Polysorbate 80?
Polysorbate 80 is a common food additive that acts as an emulsifier, a solubilizer and a surfactant. It's generally - but not universally - considered to be a safe substance, although it may cause problems in special cases. One of these cases is in people with Crohn's disease. In this disease the lining of the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed. Polysorbate 80 may worsen the inflammation.
Recent research performed at Georgia State University has raised the idea that polysorbate 80 is not as harmless as is generally believed. The research suggests that the chemical changes the composition of the bacterial population in the intestine, promoting the growth of pro-inflammatory bacteria. These bacteria may cause mild gut inflammation even in people who don't have Crohn's disease. The inflammation may then increase the risk of a person developing metabolic syndrome. This syndrome involves a number of unhealthy conditions, which include obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases the blood sugar level and is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes.
This group of Escherichia coli bacteria is magnified 10,000 times and colourized. Some strains of E. coli are normal inhabitants of our gut, or intestine. Polysorbate 80 may affect our gut bacteria, leading to inflammation.
Polysorbate 80 - A Useful Chemical
Polysorbate 80 is a very useful substance in processed
foods. It creates a smooth texture and a great
mouthfeel. It also enables substances to mix when they wouldn't normally do so. Polysorbate 80 is added to health and beauty products, medications and vaccines as well as foods. It's often referred to an excipient in medications and vaccines. Excipients are substances other than the active ingredient that serve a useful function in a product.
IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry) has established a naming system for chemicals. According to this system, polysorbate 80's real name is polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. It's a synthetic chemical that is sold in the form of a thick yellow liquid. The chemical is soluble in water as well as in several other liquids.
Polysorbate 80 as an Emulsifier
Polysorbate 80 is used as an emulsifier. An emulsifier enables oils to mix with water instead of staying separated. The emulsifier breaks up oil and fat into small droplets. The oil droplets don't dissolve in water, but they do form a fine dispersion which is appealing in food and
Emulsifiers enable us to enjoy food products such as creamy sauces, mayonnaise, margarine, ice cream and smooth chocolate. Egg yolk is a natural emulsifier, but it has the disadvantage of a short shelf life. Lecithin from soybeans is also an emulsifier.
Polysorbate 80 as a Solubilizer and a Surfactant
Polysorbate 80 is a good solubilizer as well as a good emulsifier. A solubilizer is a substance which increases the solubility of one substance in another, allowing them
to mix. The term is often used to describe a substance that increases the ability of oil to dissolve in water.
Polysorbate 80 is also useful as a surfactant. A surfactant lowers the surface tension on the surfaces of liquids. Its name is a contraction of "surface active agent". The molecules at the surface of a liquid bind tightly to each other, producing the phenomenon known as surface tension. Surface tension creates a barrier that prevents some substances from entering the liquid. The barrier also makes it hard for the liquid to mix with other substances. Surfactants such as polysorbate 80 help substances to mix with other substances by reducing the surface tension that is keeping them apart.
Polysorbate 80, Bacteria and Crohn's Disease
There have been several research projects that suggest a link between polysorbate 80 and Crohn's disease. One project of interest was performed by British researchers and reported in the British Medical Journal.
The researchers explored the effect of polysorbate 80 and soluble plant fibres on the movement of Escherichia coli into isolated human cells and tissue in a laboratory. Some strains of E. coli have been implicated in Crohn's disease. The scientists used M-cells in their experiment. These cells are one of the types present in the intestinal lining and may be the site of bacterial invasion.
The researchers found that polysorbate 80 increased bacterial absorption in both cells from Crohn's disease patients and cells from healthy people. The chemical had a greater effect on the cells from the Crohn's disease patients, however. Electron microscopy confirmed that E.coli had entered the cells. The researchers also discovered that fibre from broccoli and plantain decreased bacterial absorption in the intestinal cells.
The results imply that polysorbate 80 could worsen Crohn's disease by causing more bacteria to enter the intestinal lining. This may in turn increase the abnormal response to the bacteria and the gut inflammation.
Tuesday, October 4, 2016
Tuesday, September 6, 2016
Wednesday, August 31, 2016
This article was originally published by RodalesOrganicLife.com.
7 Foods You're Eating Without Knowing It
Cloned cow's stomach
You Should Never Order When You Eat Out
Order the water—but you may want to hold the citrus. In a study published in the Journal of Environmental Health, researchers tested 76 lemons from 21 restaurants and found that 70% of them were contaminated with bacteria. Ick. The Family Health Team at the Cleveland Clinic recommends that unless you actually see the bartender prepare your lemon wedge safely—meaning, she’s wearing gloves and using tongs—stick to plain H2O. Save the lemon water trend for home, when you can be sure your lemons are properly washed
Health and Nutrition
Saturday, July 9, 2016
दुनीया का सबसे ताकतवर पोषण पुरक आहार है सहजन (मुनुगा) 300 से अधि्क रोगो मे बहोत फायदेमंद इसकी जड़ से लेकर फुल, पत्ती, फल्ली, तना, गोन्द हर चीज़ उपयोगी होती है🍀
🍀सहजन के पौष्टिक गुणों की तुलना🍀
👉-विटामिन सी- संतरे से सात गुना
👉-विटामिन ए- गाजर से चार गुना
👉-कैलशियम- दूध से चार गुना
👉-पोटेशियम- केले से तीन गुना
👉प्रोटीन- दही की तुलना में तीन गुना
🍀स्वास्थ्य के हिसाब से इसकी फली, हरी और सूखी पत्तियों में कार्बोहाइड्रेट , प्रोटीन , कैल्शियम , पोटेशियम, आयरन, मैग्नीशियम,
विटामिन-ए , सी और बी-काम्प्लेक्स प्रचुर मात्रा में पाई जाती है
🍀इनका सेवन कर कई बीमारियों को बढ़ने से रोका जा सकता है, इसका बॉटेनिकल नाम ' मोरिगा ओलिफेरा ' है हिंदी में इसे सहजना , सुजना , सेंजन और मुनगा नाम से भी जानते हैं.
🍀जो लोग इसके बारे में जानते हैं , वे इसका सेवन जरूर करते हैं
🍀सहजन में दूध की तुलना में चार गुना कैल्शियम और दोगुना प्रोटीन पाया जाता है.
🍀ये हैं सहजन के औषधीय गुण सहजन का फूल पेट और कफ रोगों में , इसकी फली वात व उदरशूल में , पत्ती नेत्ररोग , मोच , साइटिका , गठिया आदि में उपयोगी है
🍀इसकी छाल का सेवन साइटिका , गठिया , लीवर में लाभकारी होता है। सहजन के छाल में शहद मिलाकर पीने से वात और कफ रोग खत्म हो जाते हैं
🍀इसकी पत्ती का काढ़ा बनाकर पीने से गठिया , साइटिका , पक्षाघात , वायु विकार में शीघ्र लाभ पहुंचता है। साइटिका के तीव्र वेग में इसकी जड़ का काढ़ा तीव्र गति से चमत्कारी प्रभाव दिखता है.
🍀मोच इत्यादि आने पर सहजन की पत्ती की लुगदी बनाकर सरसों तेल डालकर आंच पर पकाएं और मोच के स्थान पर लगाने से जल्दी ही लाभ मिलने लगता है
🍀सहजन की सब्जी के फायदे.🍀
🍀सहजन के फली की सब्जी खाने से पुराने गठिया , जोड़ों के दर्द , वायु संचय , वात रोगों में लाभ होता है।
🍀इसके ताजे पत्तों का रस कान में डालने से दर्द ठीक हो जाता है साथ ही इसकी सब्जी खाने से गुर्दे और मूत्राशय की पथरी कटकर निकल जाती है,
🍀इसकी जड़ की छाल का काढ़ा सेंधा नमक और हिंग डालकर पीने से पित्ताशय की पथरी में लाभ होता है
🍀सहजन के पत्तों का रस बच्चों के पेट के किड़े निकालता है और उल्टी-दस्त भी रोकता है
🍀ब्लड प्रेशर और मोटापा कम करने में भी कारगर सहजन का रस सुबह-शाम पीने से हाई ब्लड प्रेशर में लाभ होता है
🍀इसकी पत्तियों के रस के सेवन से मोटापा धीरे-धीरे कम होनेलगता है
🍀इसकी छाल के काढ़े से कुल्ला करने पर दांतों के कीड़े नष्ट होते है और दर्द में आराम मिलता है
🍀इसके कोमल पत्तों का साग खाने से कब्ज दूर होता है इसके अलावा इसकी जड़ के काढ़े को सेंधा नमक और हिंग के साथ पीने से मिर्गी के दौरों में लाभ होता है।
🍀इसकी पत्तियों को पीसकर लगाने से घाव और सूजन ठीक होते हैं
🍀पानी के शुद्धिकरण के रूप में कर सकते हैं इस्तेमाल सहजन के बीज से पानी को काफी हद तक शुद्ध करके पेयजल के रूप में इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।
🍀 इसके बीज को चूर्ण के रूप में
पीसकर पानी में मिलाया जाता है। पानी में घुल कर यह एक प्रभावी नेचुरल क्लेरीफिकेशन एजेंट बन जाता है यह न सिर्फ पानी को बैक्टीरिया रहित बनाता है , बल्कि यह पानी की सांद्रता को भी बढ़ाता है।
🍀 काढ़ा पीने से क्या-क्या हैं फायदे 🍀
🍀 कैंसर और पेट आदि के दौरान शरीर के बनी गांठ , फोड़ा आदि में सहजन की जड़ का अजवाइन , हींग और सौंठ के साथ काढ़ा बनाकर पीने का प्रचलन है यह भी पाया गया है कि यह काढ़ा साइटिका (पैरों में दर्द) , जोड़ों में दर्द , लकवा ,दमा,सूजन , पथरी आदि में लाभकारी है |
🍀 सहजन के गोंद को जोड़ों के दर्द और शहद को दमा आदि रोगों में लाभदायक माना जाता है। आज भी ग्रामीणों की ऐसी मान्यता है कि सहजन के प्रयोग से वायरस से होने वाले रोग , जैसे चेचक के होने का खतरा टल जाता है
🍀शरीर की प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाता है🍀
सहजन में हाई मात्रा में ओलिक एसिड होता है , जो कि एक प्रकार का मोनोसैच्युरेटेडफैट है और यह शरीर के लिए अति आवश्यक है। सहजन में विटामिन-सी की मात्रा बहुत होती है। यह शरीर के कई रोगों से लड़ता है
🍀 सर्दी-जुखाम 🍀
🍀 यदि सर्दी की वजह से नाक-कान बंद हो चुके हैं तो , आप सहजन को पानी में उबालकर उस पानी का भाप लें। इससे जकड़न कम होगी।
🍀 हड्डियां होती हैं मजबूत. 🍀
🍀 सहजन में कैल्शियम की मात्रा अधिक होती है , जिससे हड्डियां मजबूत बनती हैं। इसके अलावा इसमें आइरन , मैग्नीशियम और सीलियम होता है
🍀 इसका जूस गर्भवती को देने की सलाह दी जाती है , इससे डिलवरी में होने वाली समस्या से राहत मिलती है और डिलवरी के बाद भी मां को तकलीफ कम होती है, गर्भवती महिला को इसकी पत्तियों का रस देने से डिलीवरी में
आसानी होती है।
🍀 सहजन में विटामिन-ए होता है , जो कि पुराने समय से ही सौंदर्य के लिए प्रयोग किया आता जा रहा है
🍀 इस हरी सब्जी को अक्सर खाने से बुढ़ापा दूर रहता है इससे आंखों की रोशनी भी अच्छी होती है
🍀 यदि आप चाहें तो सहजन को सूप के रूप में पी सकते हैं इससे शरीर का खून साफ होता है
Friday, July 8, 2016
Monday, May 23, 2016
Saturday, May 14, 2016
According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of individuals with diabetes in 2011 crossed 366 million, with an estimated 4.6 million deaths each year . The Indian subcontinent has emerged as the capital of this diabetes epidemic. The reported prevalence of diabetes in adults between the ages of 20 and 79 is as follows: India 8.31%, Bangladesh 9.85%, Nepal 3.03%, Sri Lanka 7.77%, and Pakistan 6.72% .
Indians show a significantly higher age-related prevalence of diabetes when compared with several other populations . For a given BMI, Asian Indians display a higher insulin level which is an indicator of peripheral insulin resistance.
A wide collection of plant-derived active principles representing numerous bioactive compounds have established their role for possible use in the treatment of diabetes .
The most common and effective antidiabetic medicinal plants of Indian origin are Babul (Acacia arabica), bael(Aegle marmelose), church steeples (Agrimonia eupatoria), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), ghrita kumara (Aloe vera), neem (Azadirachta indica), ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), Beetroot (Beta vulgaris), fever nut (Caesalpinia bonducella), bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis), ivy gourd (Coccinia indica), eucalyptus(Eucalyptus globules), banyan tree (Ficus benghalenesis), gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre), gurhal (Hibiscus rosa-sinesis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), purging Nut (Jatropha curcas), mango (Mangifera indica), karela(Momordica charantia), mulberry (Morus alba), kiwach (Mucuna pruriens), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), bisasar(Pterocarpus marsupium), anar (Punica granatum), jamun (Syzygium cumini), giloy (Tinospora cordifolia), and methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum). All these plants are a rich source of phytochemicals.
2. Indian Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Potential
2.1. Ficus religiosa
Ficus religiosa, commonly known as peepal in India, belongs to family Moraceae. Ficus religiosa has been reported to be used in the traditional system of Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes . F. religiosa has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities: antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antiulcer, antianxiety, anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, immunomodulatory, estrogenic, endothelin receptor antagonist, apoptosis inducer, cognitive enhancer, and antihypertensive .
Decoction prepared from the bark is used in treatment of diabetes . The plant is believed to contain several bioactive principles including tannins, saponins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, and sterols. Sitosterol-d-glucoside present in the bark of Ficus religiosa is believed to elicit hypoglycemic activity in rabbits . The bioactive components present in Ficus are leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnoside [15, 16]. The phytoconstituents present in Ficus can impart a significant antidiabetic effect. It has been reported to contain phytosterols, flavonoids, tannins, and furanocoumarin derivatives, namely, bergapten and bergaptol .
The leaves of Ficus religiosa have also been studied for antihyperglycemic activity . Oral incorporation of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa for 21 days caused a significant lowering in blood glucose levels, and an elevated level of insulin has been observed. The skeletal muscle is an important site for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Decrease in muscle and hepatic glycogen in diabetes was observed to be corrected by peepal extract [19, 20].
Secondary complications of diabetes that is hypercholesteremia and hypertriglyceridemia were found to decrease through significantly reduced serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in STZ-diabetic rats . Administration of aqueous extract of bark at the dose of 500 mg/kg has been reported to ameliorate blood glucose level, hepatic enzymes, and lipid parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats .
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiologies in the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. F. religiosa has been reported to modulate the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. Restoration of glutathione and inhibition of malondialdehyde content has shown the antioxidative property ofFicus religiosa .
2.2. Eugenia jambolana
Eugenia jambolana (black plum or jamun) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The most commonly used plant parts are seeds, leaves, fruits, and bark. Eugenia jambolana is an evergreen tropical tree of 8 to 15 m height, with smooth, glossy turpentine-smelling leaves. The bark is scaly gray, and the trunk is forked. There are fragrant white flowers in branched clusters at stem tips and purplish-black oval edible berries. The berries contain only one seed. The taste is generally acidic to fairly sweet but astringent. This tree is known to have grown in Indian subcontinent and in other regions of South Asia such as Nepal, Burma, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh from ancient time.
Jamun has been reported to be used in numerous complementary and alternative medicine systems of India and, before the discovery of insulin, was a frontline antidiabetic medication even in Europe. The brew prepared by jamun seeds in boiling water has been used in the various traditional systems of medicine in India .
Eugenia jambolana is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and several other diseases. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and hydrolysable tannins (1-0-galloyl castalagin and casuarinin). The seeds also contain alkaloid jambosine and glycoside jamboline, which slows down the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar .
The whole plant of Eugenia jambolana is reported to show antioxidative defence due to numerous phytochemical constituents present in it. The bark of jamun is rich in several bioactive compounds including quercetin, betulinic acid, B- sitosterol, eugenin, ellagic and gallic acid , bergenin , tannins , and flavonoids. Fruits contain glucose, fructose, raffinose , malic acid , and anthocyanins ; leaves are rich in acylated flavonol glycosides , quercetin, myricetin, and tannins  all of which have hypoglycemic ability.
The blood glucose-lowering effect of Eugenia jambolana may be due to increased secretion of insulin from the pancreas or by inhibition of insulin degradation . Eugenia jambolana is also reported to have lipid-lowering effect evidenced by reduction of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids . This effect has been reported to be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides in the extract which is reported to decrease the activity of enzyme 3-HMG Co-A reductase in liver . Eugenia jambolana seed extract is reported to reduce blood pressure probably due to the ellagic acid present in it .
Addition of ethanolic extract of seeds and seed powder of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction in blood sugar level and enhancement in the histopathology of pancreatic islets . Decrease in glycosuria and blood urea levels has also been reported. Similar kind of results has also been reported in numerous studies done on dogs and rabbits [38, 39].
Eugenia jambolana fruit juice is diuretic and has been reported to provide a soothing effect on human digestive system . The gastroprotective effect has also been reported in jamun seeds. Elevation of antioxidant status and mucosal defensive properties might be the possible mechanisms behind gastroprotective properties present in jamun. Presence of flavanoids in the seeds provides the gastric ulcer protective activity to jamun . Jamun shows antiviral activity against goat pox and the highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus [41, 42].
The efficacy of Eugenia jambolana has also been tested in preclinical and clinical studies [43, 44] for hypolipidemic , anti-inflammatory, , neuropsychopharmacological , antiulcer, , antibacterial , anti-HIV , antidiarrhoeal , and antihypertensive activities .
2.3. Momordica charantia
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd or karela) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Fruit as a whole and fruit’s seeds are the parts most frequently used for therapeutic benefits. Momordica charantia is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and related conditions amongst the indigenous population of Asia, South America, and East Africa. It is often used as a vegetable in diet. Bitter gourd contains bioactive substances with antidiabetic potential such as vicine, charantin, and triterpenoids along with some antioxidants . Several preclinical studies have documented the antidiabetic and hypoglycaemic effects ofMomordica charantia through various hypothesised mechanisms .
Several studies have demonstrated antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities, in Momordica charantia [53, 54]; however, the antidiabetic activity has been widely reviewed. In several animal studies, bitter gourd has been reported to ameliorate the metabolic syndrome, where diabetes is one of the risk factors [55–57]. In a study conducted on Taiwanese adults, a significant reduction in waist circumference, improvement in diabetes, and symptoms of metabolic syndrome has been observed .
The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon have been observed . Studies have shown that Momordica charantia can repair damaged β-cells thereby stimulating insulin levels  and also improve sensitivity/signalling of insulin . Bitter gourd is also reported to inhibit absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and suppressing the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine .
Ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia is reported to show antihyperglycemic effect in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats which might be due to inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase and also stimulation of the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase . Studies have reported that triterpenoids may be the hypoglycemic components present in karela which could be responsible for activation of AMP-activated protein kinase . The blood glucose-lowering activity of karela has been reported in several animal models .
Bitter melon is also effective in loosening adiposity. It is reported to decrease the weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues . Bitter melon is found effective in augmenting skeletal muscle strength, an effect which could be due to higher mRNA expression for the glucose transporter 4 . Extracts/fractions of Antidesma madagascariense and Momordica charantia were found to significantly inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, a key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme. However, glycogen-loaded mice showed significant depressive effect on increasing the level of postprandial blood glucose after ingestion of Momordica charantia . Presence of saponins to some extent might justify the inhibitory activities on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Saponins are also supposed to stimulate insulin secretion .
2.4. Ocimum sanctum
Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil or tulsi) belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Every part of the plant is used as a therapeutic agent against several diseases. Ocimum (holy basil) is reported to grow worldwide. Nutritional and chemical composition of holy basil makes it a plant with immense potential. Eugenol, the active constituent present in O. sanctum L., has been found to be responsible for its therapeutic potential . Major bioactive constituents present in the leaves and stems of holy basil include flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, isothymusin, isothymonin, cirsimaritin, orientin, and vicenin. Tulsi leaves oil contains eugenol, ursolic acid, carvacrol, linalool, limatrol, and caryophyllene along with eugenol. Seeds oil is known to have fatty acids and sitosterol while seed mucilage contains some sugars. Anthocyanins are present in green leaves. Furthermore, tulsi is also rich in vitamins, minerals, chlorophyll, and many other phytonutrients.
Antidiabetic properties of tulsi were appreciated in Ayurveda . A significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and urea along with a simultaneous increase in glycogen, hemoglobin, and protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been observed when rats were supplemented with ethanolic extract ofO. sanctum . Leaf extract of O. sanctum L has been reported to stimulate the physiological pathways of insulin secretion . O. sanctum L. showed serum glucose-lowering effect when the extract was given to normal rats for 30 days . O. sanctum L. is reported to reduce the serum level of cortisol and glucose in male mice showing its antiperoxidative effect .
Studies have reported that oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of O. sanctum L. significantly reduced blood sugar level in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycemic, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Improvement in the action of exogenous insulin in normal rats has also been recorded . Mixed extract of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has been recorded to not only rectify dyslipidemia but also restore the endogenous antioxidant levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats .
Chloroform extracts of aerial parts of tulsi have been able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused due to diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract significantly decreased elevated level of serum glucose and also reversed the cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL values .
The hydroalcoholic extract of O. sanctum L. given to stress-induced male Wister rats is reported to significantly prevent the chronic resistant stress induced rise in plasma cAMP level, myocardial superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities . Ursolic acid isolated from O. sanctum L. has been reported to protect heart cells from Adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation . O. sanctum L is also used to control blood cholesterol. A marked decrease in serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL + VLDL cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol-fed group was observed in cholesterol-fed rabbits when supplemented with O. sanctum L. seed oil for four weeks . A similar kind of study performed on normal albino rabbits showed lowered levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, and LDL-cholesterol and a significant boost in the HDL-cholesterol and total fecal sterol contents with incorporation of fresh leaves of tulsi .
Along with antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects, O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to acquire antifungal , antimicrobial , analgesic , anthelmintic , antistress , antifertility , anti-inflammatory , antioxidant [78, 86], gastroprotective , immunomodulatory , antithyroidic , anticancer , and radioprotective effects [91, 92]. Tulsi is reported to provide a protection for central nervous system  and against sexually transmitted diseases .
2.5. Pterocarpus marsupium
Pterocarpus marsupium (indian kino tree, bijasar) belongs to the family Fabaceae. Plant parts used most commonly are heart wood, leaves, flowers, bark, and gum. Pterocarpus marsupium grows very well in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. As per Ayurveda, it is one of the most versatile medicinal plants with a wide spectrum of biological activities. Every part of the tree has been acknowledged for its therapeutic potential. This tree grows up to 30 metres in height. Compositional studies on bijasar have shown this plant to be a good source of polyphenols. P. marsupium contains terpenoids and phenolic compounds: β-sitosterol, lupenol, aurone glycosides, epicatechins, and iso-flavonoids [95, 96].
P. marsupium is known for its antidiabetic activity . Besides eliciting a strong antidiabetic property,Pterocarpus marsupium is reported to be effective against several diseases. It is reported to be antiobesity, antihyperlipidemic , anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic [99, 100], antioxidative, antitumorigenic and antiulcerative [71, 101].
Pterocarpus marsupium is reported to have not only hypoglycemic property but also β-cell protective and regenerative properties , effects which have been attributed to the flavonoid content in the plant. Complete restoration of normal insulin secretion and regeneration of beta cells have been reported in various experimental models of diabetes [103, 104]. A methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium when supplemented for 7 and 14 days to STZ-diabetic rats showed normalization of streptozotocin-distressed serum glucose by correcting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum protein, insulin, alkaline and acid phosphatase, and albumin levels .
The blood sugar-lowering activity has been endorsed to be due to the presence of tannates in the extract of the plant. Antihyperlipidemic activity is contributed probably to the marsupin, pterosupin, and liquiritigenin present in the plant . (−) Epicatechin has been shown to have insulinogenic property by enhancing insulin release and conversion of proinsulin to insulin. (−) Epicatechin has also been shown to possess insulin-like activity [107, 108]. Epicatechin has also been shown to strengthen the insulin signalling by activating key proteins of that pathway and regulating glucose production through AKT and AMPK modulation in HepG2 cells .
2.6. Trigonella foenum-graecum
Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek, methi) belongs to the family Fabaceae. Seeds and leaves are the most frequently used parts of the plant. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is cultivated throughout India and in some other parts of the world as a semiarid crop . It is used both as a vegetable and as a spice in India. Fenugreek is well known for its pungent aromatic properties, and it is a flavoring agent in food . Studies on different experimental models have proved that fenugreek has strong antidiabetic properties [111, 112]. Human studies have also confirmed the glucose and lipid-lowering ability of fenugreek .
Several studies have demonstrated that fenugreek seed extract, mucilage of seeds, and leaves can decrease blood glucose and cholesterol levels in humans and experimental diabetic animals [114, 115]. The therapeutic potential of fenugreek is primarily due to the presence of saponins , 4-hydroxyisoleucine , and trigonelline, an alkaloid  and a high-fiber content .
The antihyperglycemic effect has been correlated with decline in somatostatin and high plasma glucagon levels . Fenugreek seed powder has been shown to normalize the activity of creatinine kinase in liver, skeletal muscles, and heart of diabetic rats . The antihyperglycemic effect of fenugreek has been hypothesized to be due to the amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine which acts by the enhancement of insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in peripheral tissues . The steroids present in methi have been reported to reduce blood glucose level when supplemented to diabetic rats . A considerable increment of the area of insulin-immunoreactive β cells has been observed .
A study on intestinal and renal disaccharidases activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats proved the beneficial effects of fenugreek seed mucilage by enhancing the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes . The optimistic influence of fenugreek supplementation on intestinal and renal disaccharidases has been reported . A marked reduction in renal toxicity has been observed when fenugreek oil is incorporated in the diet of alloxanized rats .
2.7. Gymnema sylvestre
Gymnema sylvestre (gurmar) belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a herb native to the tropical forests of India and Sri Lanka. G. sylvestre is a large climber, with roots at nodes. It is a potent antidiabetic plant used in ayurvedic preparations. Several studies have proved its antidiabetic potential in animal models ; when combined with acarbose it is reported to reduce intestinal transport of maltose in rats . Absorption of free oleic acid in rats has also been reduced .
Aqueous extract of G. sylvestre has been reported to cause reversible increases in intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in mouse and human β cells with type 2 diabetes . Regeneration of the cells in the pancreas might raise the insulin levels . G. sylvestre can also help prevent adrenal hormones from stimulating the liver to produce glucose in mice, thereby reducing blood sugar levels . A group of triterpene saponins, known as gymnemic acids and gymnemasaponins are found to be present in G. sylvestrewhich are responsible for the reported pharmacological properties.
Oral administration of Gymnema is reported to be effective against chronic inflammation , obesity [133,134], and pancreatic β cell dysfunction . G. sylvestre suspension shows tremendous diabetic potential against alloxan-induced diabetic albino male rats . The hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of G. sylvestre is reported to be due to enhanced effect of insulin which comes into play by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from β cells or its release from the bound form [130, 137, 138]. A significant correlation between the good glycemic control and phospholipid levels has been observed . Oral administration of G. sylvestre to rats has been reported to result in increased utilization of glucose and/or by decreasing mobilization of fat . A significant reduction in body weight, plasma proteins, and total hemoglobin levels has also been observed .
2.8. Allium sativum
Allium sativum (garlic) commonly called lahsun belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. Leaves and bulb are the parts frequently used. As per Ayurveda it is a miraculous plant used against a variety of problems including insect bites, intestinal worms, headache, and tumors . Garlic is also used in folk medicine for the management of cardiac diseases, cancer, parasitic, fungal diseases, and diabetes [141, 142]. The principle bioactive components present in garlic are allicin, allixin, ajoene, and other organosulphur compounds.
Biological and therapeutic functions of garlic are basically due to the organosulphur compounds they possess . These chemical components are thought to exhibit numerous biological effects including lowering of cholesterol and glucose, cancer prevention, and antimicrobial properties . Studies have proved that the consumption of garlic significantly decreased fasting blood sugar levels . Diallyl trisulfide has been proved to improve glycemic control in STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Incorporation of garlic juice resulted in better utilization of glucose in glucose tolerance tests performed in rabbits, while allicin at a dose of 250 mg/kg was 60% as effective as tolbutamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits .
Garlic may act as an antidiabetic agent by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from the β cells or the release of bound insulin . Allicin is supposed to enhance serum insulin by combining with cysteine and sparing it from SH group reactions . The beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine, an organosulfur from allium plants, on serum lipids and glucose are related to its antioxidant property. N-Acetylcysteine is reported to reduce the oxidative stress by improving the endogenous antioxidant defences .
Allicin, a sulfur-containing compound, is responsible for the pungent flavour and significant hypoglycemic activity in garlic. This effect is supposed to be due to enhanced hepatic metabolism, release of insulin, and/or insulin-sparing effect [150, 151]. S-allyl cystein sulfoxide the precursor of allicin is reported to control lipid peroxidation and hyperglycemia in rats .
Cardiovascular complications of diabetes are reported to be prevented by the consumption of garlic . Saponins are reported to reduce serum cholesterol levels . Garlic juice has been found to exert antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats .
Phytochemicals present in garlic also show antioxidative property evidenced by scavenging of reactive oxygen species  and increasing cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase . Garlic alone and with ginger and turmeric when tested against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide diabetic rats showed 80–97% increment in the signs of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, 26–37% increase in the production of insulin and enrichment in the antioxidant defence system along with a 60–97% decrease in lipid peroxidation . Administration of raw garlic homogenate was found to normalise both hepatic TBARS and GSH levels and also improve insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats . Numerous studies report that aged garlic extract inhibit the generation of glycation-derived free radicals and AGEs in vitro. S-Allyl cysteine, one of the bioactive ingredients of aged garlic, is a known antioxidant that possesses the capacity to inhibit AGEs synthesis .