Thursday, April 6, 2017

You never knew what Black pepper and cur cumin combination can do?

Curcumin is not well absorbed if taken by alone but adding quarter teaspoon of black pepper, curcumin levels skyrocket. The same amount of curcumin consumed, but the bioavailability shoots up 2,000 percent. Even just a little pinch of pepper—1/20th of a teaspoon—can significantly boost levels.”
Also use curcumin with fat. “Turmeric needs to be combined with a fat in order for your body to fully absorb it and experience its amazing health benefits. When eaten with healthy fats, such as coconut, ghee, or olive oil, curcumin can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream through the lymphatic system thereby in part bypassing the liver.”
You can also try heating turmeric, sauteing it in about half a teaspoon of oil in a saucepan and then adding it to your cooking.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Remedy Restores Bone And Makes Joints

Cure for the bones and joints at home
  • 2 tablespoons of honey
  • 2 tablespoons of crushed valerian root
  • 1 tablespoon of fennel seeds
  • 1 liter of warm water

> Mix all ingredients in a saucepan or deep bowl.
> Pour over the mixture with warm water and put the drink in a thermos.
> Allow to stand in a thermos exactly 24 hours. Drink by half a cup 30 minutes before meals 2 times a day, until you finished the infusion.
> This remedy can be used in combination with conventional treatments.
On the next day the pain will disappear.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

Garlic - Anticancer properties of raw garlic.

Garlic is one of the veggies you should eat every day. It packs powerful compounds that destroy cancer cells, as confirmed by the American Institute for Cancer Research. 
some of ailments you can treat with garlic:
  • Helicobacter Pylori infection
  • Candida (Yeast) infection
  • Thrush (Fungal overgrowth in the mouth)
  • Mycotoxin-associated aflatoxicosis
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
  • Klebsiella infection
  • HIV-1 infection
  • Vibrio infection
  • Pseudomonas Aerigonosima (and drug-resistant strains as well)
  • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, multi-drug resistant Clostridium infection
  • Cytomegalovirus infections
  • Viral infections (Herpes Simplex 1 and 2, Parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human rhinovirus type 2)
  • Group B Streptococcus Infection
If you decide to try the garlic treatment, make sure you eat 5-6 crushed garlic cloves per day. You can eat more, if it works for you. One garlic bulb provides about 12 cloves.
Let our garlic rest for 15 minutes after you have crushed it. This is the time it takes for the release of the enzyme that produces the antifungal and anticancer compounds.
You can eat garlic with your food, both raw and cooked, but some researchers believe that garlic supplements does not provide the same anticancer and antifungal effect.
The biomedical database MEDLINE, released by the National Library of Medicine, offers 4245 study abstracts based on garlic.
This data confirms that garlic can help in the treatment of over 150 health conditions. This includes diabetes, infection, plaque buildups in arteries, DNA damage caused by mercury poisoning and other ailments.
Garlic can also help in 167 health conditions or symptoms, but most studies involve the power of garlic to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease and cancer. These are the two major causes of death in high-income countries. This research is available on
Cheap, safe and tasty natural remedies like garlic have saved so many lives. Logically, these remedies were as expensive as gold.

Saturday, November 5, 2016

Cilantro and its antioxidant property

Ancient Indians were not fool treating diseases and preventing with herbs. One of that is we are talking about is Cilantro-
Cilantro is one of the most effective and gentle detoxifiers of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants. It is excellent for extracting mercury from your body’s organs. Heavy metals have been linked to serious health problems such as cancer, heart disease, brain deterioration, emotional problems, kidney disease, lung disease, and weak bones.

Cilantro is a rich source of minerals, such as potassium, calcium, manganese, iron and magnesium.  It contains high amount of vitamins A and K. It is also a proven antiseptic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory; it can help quickly reduce infection and inflammation as it works to clear your system.
Researchers at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi injected an antigen solution into the left hind paws of rats, producing inflammation and swelling similar to that seen in rheumatoid arthritis.

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Polysorbate 80 is poison additive in foods

What is Polysorbate 80?
 Polysorbate 80 is a common food additive that acts as an emulsifier, a solubilizer and a surfactant. It's generally - but not universally - considered to be a safe substance, although it may cause problems in special cases. One of these cases is in people with Crohn's disease. In this disease the lining of the gastrointestinal tract is inflamed. Polysorbate 80 may worsen the inflammation.
Recent research performed at Georgia State University has raised the idea that polysorbate 80 is not as harmless as is generally believed. The research suggests that the chemical changes the composition of the bacterial population in the intestine, promoting the growth of pro-inflammatory bacteria. These bacteria may cause mild gut inflammation even in people who don't have Crohn's disease. The inflammation may then increase the risk of a person developing metabolic syndrome. This syndrome involves a number of unhealthy conditions, which include obesity and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases the blood sugar level and is often a precursor to type 2 diabetes.
This group of Escherichia coli bacteria is magnified 10,000 times and colourized. Some strains of E. coli are normal inhabitants of our gut, or intestine. Polysorbate 80 may affect our gut bacteria, leading to inflammation.
Polysorbate 80 may affect gut bacteria in the human gastrointestinal or digestive tract.O

Polysorbate 80 - A Useful Chemical

Polysorbate 80 is a very useful substance in processed 
foods. It creates a smooth texture and a great 
mouthfeel. It also enables substances to mix when they wouldn't normally do so. Polysorbate 80 is added to health and beauty products, medications and vaccines as well as foods. It's often referred to an excipient in medications and vaccines. Excipients are substances other than the active ingredient that serve a useful function in a product.
IUPAC (International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry) has established a naming system for chemicals. According to this system, polysorbate 80's real name is polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. It's a synthetic chemical that is sold in the form of a thick yellow liquid. The chemical is soluble in water as well as in several other liquids.

Polysorbate 80 as an Emulsifier

Polysorbate 80 is used as an emulsifier. An emulsifier enables oils to mix with water instead of staying separated. The emulsifier breaks up oil and fat into small droplets. The oil droplets don't dissolve in water, but they do form a fine dispersion which is appealing in food and 
Emulsifiers enable us to enjoy food products such as creamy sauces, mayonnaise, margarine, ice cream and smooth chocolate. Egg yolk is a natural emulsifier, but it has the disadvantage of a short shelf life. Lecithin from soybeans is also an emulsifier.

Uncooked egg yolk is a natural emulsifier.

Polysorbate 80 as a Solubilizer and a Surfactant

Polysorbate 80 is a good solubilizer as well as a good emulsifier. A solubilizer is a substance which increases the solubility of one substance in another, allowing them 
to mix. The term is often used to describe a substance that increases the ability of oil to dissolve in water.
Polysorbate 80 is also useful as a surfactant. A surfactant lowers the surface tension on the surfaces of liquids. Its name is a contraction of "surface active agent". The molecules at the surface of a liquid bind tightly to each other, producing the phenomenon known as surface tension. Surface tension creates a barrier that prevents some substances from entering the liquid. The barrier also makes it hard for the liquid to mix with other substances. Surfactants such as polysorbate 80 help substances to mix with other substances by reducing the surface tension that is keeping them apart.
Crohn's disease most often develops in the ileum at the end of the small intestine and in the part of the colon nearest to the ileum.

Polysorbate 80, Bacteria and Crohn's Disease

There have been several research projects that suggest a link between polysorbate 80 and Crohn's disease. One project of interest was performed by British researchers and reported in the British Medical Journal.
The researchers explored the effect of polysorbate 80 and soluble plant fibres on the movement of Escherichia coli into isolated human cells and tissue in a laboratory. Some strains of E. coli have been implicated in Crohn's disease. The scientists used M-cells in their experiment. These cells are one of the types present in the intestinal lining and may be the site of bacterial invasion.
The researchers found that polysorbate 80 increased bacterial absorption in both cells from Crohn's disease patients and cells from healthy people. The chemical had a greater effect on the cells from the Crohn's disease patients, however. Electron microscopy confirmed that E.coli had entered the cells. The researchers also discovered that fibre from broccoli and plantain decreased bacterial absorption in the intestinal cells.
The results imply that polysorbate 80 could worsen Crohn's disease by causing more bacteria to enter the intestinal lining. This may in turn increase the abnormal response to the bacteria and the gut inflammation.

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Natural green way to get rid of weed

Stop using weed killer like round up unless you are ready for endocrine disruption and liver and kidney damage . Greener way to get rid of weed in your lawn-
You will need:
1 Gallon of White Vinegar
Spray Bottle
Pour the white vinegar into the spray bottle and spray directly onto the weeds, but away from the plants and grass, you intend to keep.
In the case of more aggressive weeds, you can also try the following modified alternative:
1 Gallon of White Vinegar
1/4 Cup of non-toxic dish soap
2 Cups of Epsom Salts
Spray Bottle
You should add all ingredients into the bottle, shake a bit, and spray onto the weeds. After using these natural sprays, you will no longer have weed problems in the yard! Therefore, do not hesitate to try them!

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

7 Gross Foods You're Eating Without Knowing It

This article was originally published by

Paint chemical in salad dressing

Titanium dioxide is a component of the metallic element titanium, a mined substance that is sometimes contaminated with toxic lead. Commonly used in paints and sunscreens, big food corporations add it to lots of things we eat, too, including processed salad dressing, coffee creamers, and icing. The food industry adds it to hundreds of products to make dingy, overly processed items appear whiter. "White has long been the symbolic color of clean," explains food industry insider Bruce Bradley, who shares the tricks, traps, and ploys of big food manufacturers on his blog,

Maggoty mushrooms

Maggots are fly larvae—tiny rice-shaped creatures that feast on rotting foods. The Food and Drug Administration legally allows 19 maggots and 74 mites in a 3.5-ounce can of mushrooms. While maggots do have their place in the medical world—they can help heal ulcers and other wounds—most people think it's pretty gross to eat them. If you need another reason to ditch canned goods, consider this: Most are lined with bisphenol A, or BPA—a plastic chemical that causes unnatural hormonal changes linked to heart attacks, obesity, and certain cancers.

Cloned cow's stomach


Traditionally, cheese makers used rennet derived from the mucosa of a veal calf's fourth stomach to create the beloved, versatile dairy product. But Bradley notes that cost and the limited availability of calf stomachs have led to the development of several alternatives, including vegetable rennet, microbial rennet, and—the food industry's rennet of choice—a genetically modified version derived from a cloned calf gene. It's used to make the vast majority of cheese sold in the United States. Since GMO ingredients aren't listed on the label, it can be tough for consumers to avoid rennet from this source. "With all these rennet varieties often listed simply as "enzymes" on an ingredient panel, it can be very hard to know exactly what kind you're eating when you buy cheese," says Bradley, author of Fat Profits.

Flesh-eating bacteria

Photograph by LEIGH PRATHER/SHUTTERSTOCK           

Grocery store meats are commonly infused with veterinary medicines, heavy metals, and staph bacteria, including the hard-to-kill, potentially lethal MRSA strain. Unfortunately, the problem is far from rare. A study published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases found that half of grocery store meat tested harbored staph bacteria. Researchers ID the overuse of antibiotics in industrial agriculture as a major cause in the rise of superbugs in our grocery store food. MRSA kills about 19,000 people a year in America—that's more annual deaths than from AIDS in the U.S. Purchasing grass-fed meat and eggs from organic farmers is a more sustainable choice.

Herbicide-flavored food

Photograph by DEFOTOBERG/SHUTTERSTOCK           
Glyphosate, the active chemical ingredient in the popular weed killer, Roundup, is a hormone-disrupting chemical now used primarily on corn and soy crops genetically engineered to withstand a heavy dousing of the chemical. Roundup is so heavily used around homes and in farm fields that it's now being detected in streams, the air, and even rain. Because it's a systemic herbicide, it's actually taken up inside the plant—meaning we eat it—and it's legally allowed in our food and in an amount that worries scientists. It's found in most nonorganic packaged foods because most contain corn- or soy-derived ingredients, the crops that are most often heavily doused with Roundup. Glyphosate exposure is linked to obesity, learning disabilities, birth defects, infertility, and potentially irreversible metabolic damage. To avoid pesticides in products, eat organic and avoided processed foods as much as possible. And use caution—"all natural" foods often are chockfull of pesticides and genetically engineered ingredients.

Beaver anal gland juice

It's a bitter, smelly, orange-brown substance known as castoreum, explains Bradley. "In nature, it's combined with the beaver's urine and used to mark its territory." It's used extensively in processed food and beverages, typically as vanilla or raspberry flavoring. This gross ingredient won't show up on the label—instead, companies using it in making processed food list it as natural flavoring. This poses a dilemma for vegans, vegetarians, and anyone who wants to avoid eating any creature's anal excretions.


11 Back-to-School Lunches That Nutritionists Give Their Kids

By Dana Leigh Smith
It’s back to school season, so a pop quiz is only fitting. What’s more challenging: Training for a marathon or packing a healthy lunch that your kid won’t trade for a Fruit Roll-Up?
Whipping up creative and nutritious meals that will please the picky little ones can be tough—especially when they see alluring vending machine treats and less-than-healthy snacks in other kids' lunchboxes. To help take the stress out of your back-to-school packing, we had diet experts fork over their creative lunchtime ideas. Read on to learn how to piece together exciting and healthy lunchbox meals for your little one all year long. And be sure to steer clear of packaged products that are hiding harmful additives, which we reveal in our report on the 13 Scary Ingredients in Your Kid’s Lunch Box, Exposed!

Fresh meat

With fresh meat you’re usually dealing with a 'sell by' date, which tells the store the last day it can keep that product out for sale. What does this mean for you? You either need to eat it or freeze it when you get home. 'The ‘sell by’ is telling the store when it should be the last day to have it on their shelf. They may even be discounting the food to try to get rid of it if it’s the last day they can have it on their shelves,' says Crandall. A lot of fresh raw meat is also contaminated with Salmonella, E. coli, or other bacteria. With that in mind, it’s very important to cook the meat at the proper temperatures as a greater defense against bacteria Water with lemon
You Should Never Order When You Eat Out

Order the water—but you may want to hold the citrus. In a study published in the Journal of Environmental Health, researchers tested 76 lemons from 21 restaurants and found that 70% of them were contaminated with bacteria. Ick. The Family Health Team at the Cleveland Clinic recommends that unless you actually see the bartender prepare your lemon wedge safely—meaning, she’s wearing gloves and using tongs—stick to plain H2O. Save the lemon water trend for home, when you can be sure your lemons are properly washed
Health and Nutrition

Monday, August 1, 2016

Homeopathic meds for snake bite

दोस्तो सबसे पहले साँपो के बारे मे एक महत्वपूर्ण बात आप ये जान लीजिये ! कि अपने देश भारत मे 550 किस्म के साँप है ! जैसे एक cobra है ,viper है ,karit है ! ऐसी 550 किस्म की साँपो की जातियाँ हैं ! इनमे से मुश्किल से 10 साँप है जो जहरीले है सिर्फ 10 ! बाकी सब non poisonous है! इसका मतलब ये हुआ 540 साँप ऐसे है जिनके काटने से आपको कुछ नहीं होगा !! बिलकुल चिंता मत करिए !


लेकिन साँप के काटने का डर इतना है (हाय साँप ने काट लिया ) और कि कई बार आदमी heart attack से मर जाता है !जहर से नहीं मरता cardiac arrest से मर जाता है ! तो डर इतना है मन मे ! तो ये डर निकलना चाहिए !


वो डर कैसे निकलेगा ????


जब आपको ये पता होगा कि 550 तरह के साँप है उनमे से सिर्फ 10 साँप जहरीले हैं ! जिनके काटने से कोई मरता है ! इनमे से जो सबसे जहरीला साँप है उसका नाम है !

russell viper ! उसके बाद है karit इसके बाद है viper और एक है cobra ! king cobra जिसको आप कहते है काला नाग !! ये 4 तो बहुत ही खतरनाक और जहरीले है इनमे से किसी ने काट लिया तो 99 % chances है कि death होगी !


लेकिन अगर आप थोड़ी होशियारी दिखाये तो आप रोगी को बचा सकते हैं

होशियारी क्या दिखनी है ???


आपने देखा होगा साँप जब भी काटता है तो उसके दो दाँत है जिनमे जहर है जो शरीर के मास के अंदर घुस जाते हैं ! और खून मे वो अपना जहर छोड़ देता है ! तो फिर ये जहर ऊपर की तरफ जाता है ! मान लीजिये हाथ पर साँप ने काट लिया तो फिर जहर दिल की तरफ जाएगा उसके बाद पूरे शरीर मे पहुंचेगा ! ऐसे ही अगर पैर पर काट लिया तो फिर ऊपर की और heart तक जाएगा और फिर पूरे शरीर मे पहुंचेगा ! कहीं भी काटेगा तो दिल तक जाएगा ! और पूरे मे खून मे पूरे शरीर मे उसे पहुँचने मे 3 घंटे लगेंगे !


मतलब ये है कि रोगी 3 घंटे तक तो नहीं ही मरेगा ! जब पूरे दिमाग के एक एक हिस्से मे बाकी सब जगह पर जहर पहुँच जाएगा तभी उसकी death होगी otherwise नहीं होगी ! तो 3 घंटे का time है रोगी को बचाने का और उस तीन घंटे मे अगर आप कुछ कर ले तो बहुत अच्छा है !


क्या कर सकते हैं ?? ???


एक medicine आप चाहें तो हमेशा अपने घर मे रख सकते हैं बहुत सस्ती है homeopathy मे आती है ! उसका नाम है NAJA (N A J A ) ! homeopathy medicine है किसी भी homeopathy shop मे आपको मिल जाएगी ! और इसकी potency है 200 ! आप दुकान पर जाकर कहें NAJA 200 देदो ! तो दुकानदार आपको दे देगा ! ये 5 मिलीलीटर आप घर मे खरीद कर रख लीजिएगा 100 लोगो की जान इससे बच जाएगी ! और इसकी कीमत सिर्फ पाँच रुपए है ! इसकी बोतल भी आती है 100 मिलीग्राम की 70 से 80 रुपए की उससे आप कम से कम 10000 लोगो की जान बचा सकते हैं जिनको साँप ने काटा है !


और ये जो medicine है NAJA ये दुनिया के सबसे खतरनाक साँप का ही poison है जिसको कहते है क्रैक ! इस साँप का poison दुनिया मे सबसे खराब माना जाता है ! इसके बारे मे कहते है अगर इसने किसी को काटा तो उसे भगवान ही बचा सकता है ! medicine भी वहाँ काम नहीं करती उसी का ये poison है लेकिन delusion form मे है तो घबराने की कोई बात नहीं ! आयुर्वेद का सिद्धांत आप जानते है लोहा लोहे को काटता है तो जब जहर चला जाता है शरीर के अंदर तो दूसरे साँप का जहर ही काम आता है !


तो ये NAJA 200 आप घर मे रख लीजिये !अब देनी कैसे है रोगी को वो आप जान लीजिये !

1 बूंद उसकी जीभ पर रखे और 10 मिनट बाद फिर 1 बूंद रखे और फिर 10 मिनट बाद 1 बूंद रखे !! 3 बार डाल के छोड़ दीजिये !बस इतना काफी है !


और कि ये दवा रोगी की जिंदगी को हमेशा हमेशा के लिए बचा लेगी ! और साँप काटने के एलोपेथी मे जो injection है वो आम अस्तप्तालों मे नहीं मिल पाते ! डाक्टर आपको कहेगा इस अस्तपाताल मे ले जाओ उसमे ले जाओ आदि आदि !!


और जो ये एलोपेथी वालो के पास injection है इसकी कीमत 10 से 15 हजार रुपए है ! और अगर मिल जाएँ तो डाक्टर एक साथ 8 से -10 injection ठोक देता है ! कभी कभी 15 तक ठोक देता है मतलब लाख-डेड लाख तो आपका एक बार मे साफ !! और यहाँ सिर्फ 10 रुपए की medicine से आप उसकी जान बचा सकते हैं !


और  injection जितना effective है मैं इस दवा(NAJA) की गारंटी लेता हूँ ये दवा एलोपेथी के injection से 100 गुना (times) ज्यादा effective है !


तो अंत आप याद रखिए घर मे किसी को साँप काटे और अगर दवा(NAJA) घर मे न हो ! फटाफट कहीं से injection लेकर first aid (प्राथमिक सहायता) के लिए आप injection वाला उपाय शुरू करे ! और अगर दवा है तो फटाफट पहले दवा पिला दे और उधर से injection वाला उपचार भी करते रहे !

दवा injection वाले उपचार से ज्यादा जरूरी है !!


तो ये जानकारी आप हमेशा याद रखे पता नहीं कब काम आ जाए हो सकता है आपके ही जीवन मे काम आ जाए ! या पड़ोसी के जीवन मे या किसी रिश्तेदार के काम आ जाए! तो first aid के लिए injection की सुई काटने वाला तरीका और ये NAJA 200 hoeopathy दवा ! 10 – 10 मिनट बाद 1 – 1 बूंद तीन बार

रोगी की जान बचा सकती है !!

Saturday, July 9, 2016

सहजन (मुनुगा) , munga , sahjan

दुनीया का सबसे ताकतवर पोषण पुरक आहार है सहजन (मुनुगा) 300 से अधि्क रोगो मे बहोत फायदेमंद इसकी जड़ से लेकर फुल, पत्ती, फल्ली, तना, गोन्द हर चीज़ उपयोगी होती है🍀
🍀आयुर्वेद में सहजन से तीन सौ रोगों का उपचार संभव है
🍀सहजन के पौष्टिक गुणों की तुलना🍀
👉-विटामिन सी- संतरे से सात गुना
👉-विटामिन ए- गाजर से चार गुना
👉-कैलशियम- दूध से चार गुना
👉-पोटेशियम- केले से तीन गुना
👉प्रोटीन- दही की तुलना में तीन गुना
🍀स्वास्थ्य के हिसाब से इसकी फली, हरी और सूखी पत्तियों में कार्बोहाइड्रेट , प्रोटीन , कैल्शियम , पोटेशियम, आयरन, मैग्नीशियम,
विटामिन-ए , सी और बी-काम्प्लेक्स प्रचुर मात्रा में पाई जाती है
🍀इनका सेवन कर कई बीमारियों को बढ़ने से रोका जा सकता है, इसका बॉटेनिकल नाम ' मोरिगा ओलिफेरा ' है हिंदी में इसे सहजना , सुजना , सेंजन और मुनगा नाम से भी जानते हैं.
🍀जो लोग इसके बारे में जानते हैं , वे इसका सेवन जरूर करते हैं
🍀सहजन में दूध की तुलना में चार गुना कैल्शियम और दोगुना प्रोटीन पाया जाता है.
🍀ये हैं सहजन के औषधीय गुण सहजन का फूल पेट और कफ रोगों में , इसकी फली वात व उदरशूल में , पत्ती नेत्ररोग , मोच , साइटिका , गठिया आदि में उपयोगी है
🍀इसकी छाल का सेवन साइटिका , गठिया , लीवर में लाभकारी होता है। सहजन के छाल में शहद मिलाकर पीने से वात और कफ रोग खत्म हो जाते हैं
🍀इसकी पत्ती का काढ़ा बनाकर पीने से गठिया , साइटिका , पक्षाघात , वायु विकार में शीघ्र लाभ पहुंचता है। साइटिका के तीव्र वेग में इसकी जड़ का काढ़ा तीव्र गति से चमत्कारी प्रभाव दिखता है.
🍀मोच इत्यादि आने पर सहजन की पत्ती की लुगदी बनाकर सरसों तेल डालकर आंच पर पकाएं और मोच के स्थान पर लगाने से जल्दी ही लाभ मिलने लगता है
🍀सहजन की सब्जी के फायदे.🍀
🍀सहजन के फली की सब्जी खाने से पुराने गठिया , जोड़ों के दर्द , वायु संचय , वात रोगों में लाभ होता है।
🍀इसके ताजे पत्तों का रस कान में डालने से दर्द ठीक हो जाता है साथ ही इसकी सब्जी खाने से गुर्दे और मूत्राशय की पथरी कटकर निकल जाती है,
🍀इसकी जड़ की छाल का काढ़ा सेंधा नमक और हिंग डालकर पीने से पित्ताशय की पथरी में लाभ होता है
🍀सहजन के पत्तों का रस बच्चों के पेट के किड़े निकालता है और उल्टी-दस्त भी रोकता है
🍀ब्लड प्रेशर और मोटापा कम करने में भी कारगर सहजन का रस सुबह-शाम पीने से हाई ब्लड प्रेशर में लाभ होता है
🍀इसकी पत्तियों के रस के सेवन से मोटापा धीरे-धीरे कम होनेलगता है
🍀इसकी छाल के काढ़े से कुल्ला करने पर दांतों के कीड़े नष्ट होते है और दर्द में आराम मिलता है
🍀इसके कोमल पत्तों का साग खाने से कब्ज दूर होता है इसके अलावा इसकी जड़ के काढ़े को सेंधा नमक और हिंग के साथ पीने से मिर्गी के दौरों में लाभ होता है।
🍀इसकी पत्तियों को पीसकर लगाने से घाव और सूजन ठीक होते हैं
🍀पानी के शुद्धिकरण के रूप में कर सकते हैं इस्तेमाल सहजन के बीज से पानी को काफी हद तक शुद्ध करके पेयजल के रूप में इस्तेमाल किया जाता है।
🍀 इसके बीज को चूर्ण के रूप में
पीसकर पानी में मिलाया जाता है। पानी में घुल कर यह एक प्रभावी नेचुरल क्लेरीफिकेशन एजेंट बन जाता है यह न सिर्फ पानी को बैक्टीरिया रहित बनाता है , बल्कि यह पानी की सांद्रता को भी बढ़ाता है।
🍀 काढ़ा पीने से क्या-क्या हैं फायदे 🍀
🍀 कैंसर और पेट आदि के दौरान शरीर के बनी गांठ , फोड़ा आदि में सहजन की जड़ का अजवाइन , हींग और सौंठ के साथ काढ़ा बनाकर पीने का प्रचलन है यह भी पाया गया है कि यह काढ़ा साइटिका (पैरों में दर्द) , जोड़ों में दर्द , लकवा ,दमा,सूजन , पथरी आदि में लाभकारी है |
🍀 सहजन के गोंद को जोड़ों के दर्द और शहद को दमा आदि रोगों में लाभदायक माना जाता है। आज भी ग्रामीणों की ऐसी मान्यता है कि सहजन के प्रयोग से वायरस से होने वाले रोग , जैसे चेचक के होने का खतरा टल जाता है
🍀शरीर की प्रतिरोधक क्षमता बढ़ाता है🍀
सहजन में हाई मात्रा में ओलिक एसिड होता है , जो कि एक प्रकार का मोनोसैच्युरेटेडफैट है और यह शरीर के लिए अति आवश्यक है। सहजन में विटामिन-सी की मात्रा बहुत होती है। यह शरीर के कई रोगों से लड़ता है
🍀 सर्दी-जुखाम 🍀
🍀 यदि सर्दी की वजह से नाक-कान बंद हो चुके हैं तो , आप सहजन को पानी में उबालकर उस पानी का भाप लें। इससे जकड़न कम होगी।
🍀 हड्डियां होती हैं मजबूत. 🍀
🍀 सहजन में कैल्शियम की मात्रा अधिक होती है , जिससे हड्डियां मजबूत बनती हैं। इसके अलावा इसमें आइरन , मैग्नीशियम और सीलियम होता है
🍀 इसका जूस गर्भवती को देने की सलाह दी जाती है , इससे डिलवरी में होने वाली समस्या से राहत मिलती है और डिलवरी के बाद भी मां को तकलीफ कम होती है, गर्भवती महिला को इसकी पत्तियों का रस देने से डिलीवरी में
आसानी होती है।
🍀 सहजन में विटामिन-ए होता है , जो कि पुराने समय से ही सौंदर्य के लिए प्रयोग किया आता जा रहा है
🍀 इस हरी सब्जी को अक्सर खाने से बुढ़ापा दूर रहता है इससे आंखों की रोशनी भी अच्छी होती है
🍀 यदि आप चाहें तो सहजन को सूप के रूप में पी सकते हैं इससे शरीर का खून साफ होता है

Friday, July 8, 2016

परिजात (हरसिंगार ) के प्रयोग से बीस साल पुराना गठिया का दर्द ठीक हो जाता है

पारिजात वृक्ष को लेकर गहन अध्ययन कर चुके रूड़की के कुंवर हरिसिंह के अनुसार यूँ तो परिजात वृक्ष की प्रजाति भारत में नहीं पाई जाती, लेकिन भारत में एक मात्र पारिजात वृक्ष आज भी उत्तर प्रदेश के बाराबंकी जनपद के अंतर्गत रामनगर क्षेत्र के गाँव बोरोलिया में मौजूद है। लगभग 50 फीट तने व 45 फीट उँचाई के इस वृक्ष की अधिकांश शाखाएँ भूमि की ओर मुड़ जाती हैं और धरती को छुते ही सूख जाती हैं। एक साल में सिर्फ़ एक बार जून माह में सफ़ेद व पीले रंग के फूलों से सुसज्जित होने वाला यह वृक्ष न सिर्फ़ खुशबू बिखेरता है, बल्कि देखने में भी सुन्दर है। आयु की दृष्टि से एक हज़ार से पाँच हज़ार वर्ष तक जीवित रहने वाले इस वृक्ष को वनस्पति शास्त्री एडोसोनिया वर्ग का मानते हैं, जिसकी दुनिया भर में सिर्फ़ पाँच प्रजातियाँ पाई जाती हैं। इनमें से एक ‘डिजाहाट’ है। पारिजात वृक्ष इसी डिजाहाट प्रजाति का है।
इसे संस्कृत पे पारिजात कहते है, बंगला में शिउली कहते है , उस पेड़ पर छोटे छोटे सफ़ेद फूल आते है, और फूल की डंडी नारंगी रंग की होती है, और उसमे खुसबू बहुत आती है, रात को फूल खिलते है और सुबह जमीन में गिर जाते है-
पारिजात पेड़ के पांच पत्ते तोड़ के पत्थर में पिस ले और चटनी बनाइये फिर  एक ग्लास पानी में इतना गरम कीजिये की पानी आधा हो जाये फिर इसको ठंडा करके पीजिये तो बीस बीस साल पुराना गठिया का दर्द ठीक हो जाता है-
अगर घुटनों की चिकनाई (Smoothness) हो गई हो और जोड़ो के दर्द में किसी भी प्रकार की दवा से आराम ना मिलता हो तो ऐसे लोग हारसिंगार (पारिजात) पेड़ के 10-12 पत्तों को पत्थर पे कूटकर एक  गिलास पानी में उबालें-जब पानी एक चौथाई बच जाए तो बिना छाने ही ठंडा करके पी लें- इस प्रकार 90 दिन में चिकनाई पूरी तरह वापिस बन जाएगी-अगर कुछ कमी रह जाए तो फिर एक माह का अंतर देकर फिर से 90 दिन तक इसी क्रम को दोहराएँ-निश्चित लाभ की प्राप्ति होती है-
इस के  पत्ते को पीस कर  गरम पानी में डाल के पीजिये तो बुखार ठीक कर देता है और जो बुखार किसी दवा से ठीक नही होता वो इससे ठीक होता है; जैसे चिकनगुनिया का बुखार, डेंगू फीवर, Encephalitis , ब्रेन मलेरिया, ये सभी ठीक होते है-
पारिजात बवासीर  के निदान के लिए रामबाण औषधी है। इसके एक बीज का सेवन प्रतिदिन किया जाये तो बवासीर रोग ठीक हो जाता है। पारिजात के बीज का लेप बनाकर गुदा पर लगाने से बवासीर के रोगी को राहत मिलती है-
इसके फूल हृदय के लिए भी उत्तम औषधी माने जाते हैं। वर्ष में एक माह पारिजात पर फूल आने पर यदि इन फूलों का या फिर फूलों के रस का सेवन किया जाए तो हृदय रोग से बचा जा सकता है-
इतना ही नहीं पारिजात की पत्तियों को पीस कर शहद में मिलाकर सेवन करने से सूखी खाँसी ठीक हो जाती है-
इसी तरह पारिजात की पत्तियों को पीसकर त्वचा पर लगाने से त्वचा संबंधि रोग ठीक हो जाते हैं। पारिजात की पत्तियों से बने हर्बल तेल का भी त्वचा रोगों में भरपूर इस्तेमाल किया जाता है-
पारिजात की कोंपल को यदि पाँच काली मिर्च के साथ महिलाएँ सेवन करें तो महिलाओं को स्त्री रोग में लाभ मिलता है। वहीं पारिजात के बीज जहाँ बालों के लिए शीरप का काम करते हैं तो इसकी पत्तियों का जूस क्रोनिक बुखार को ठीक कर देता है-

Monday, May 23, 2016

ब्रेड, बन, बर्गर खाने से हो सकता है कैंसर

आज घर में आज सुबह के नास्ते में ब्रेड को एक सरल भोज्य के रूप में देखा जाता है। इसे आसान, सुविधाजनक, पौष्टिक और स्वादिष्ट माना जाता है. खासतौर पर अकेले रहने वाले लोगों के लिए तो इसे एक वरदान जैसा है। लेकिन यह सरल सा दिखने वाला नास्ता क्या हमारे शारीर में विपरीत प्रभाव तो नही डाल रहा यह हम कभी नही सोचते।

सावधान हो जाये क्यूँकी, सेंटर फॉर साइंस एंड एनवायरमेंट की एक स्टडी से पता चलता है कि, सरलता से मिलने वाला ब्रेड हमारे शारीर को भीतर ही भीतर खोखला कर असाध्य रोग कैंसर के लक्षण पैदा कर रहा है।

ब्रेड बनता तो गेहूँ से ही है जिससे आटा भी बनता है और रोटी तो हम रोज ही खाते है फिर मात्र ब्रेड से ही कैंसर कैसे?

प्रश्न उपयुक्त है लेकिन हानिकारक तत्व गेहूँ में नही होते और ना ही आटे में, बल्कि ब्रेड बनाने के लिए प्रयोग होने वाले केमिकल्स में है। ब्रेड बनाने में प्रयोग होने वाले केमिकल्स विश्व के बहुत से देशों में तो बहुत पहले प्रतिबंधित किए जा चुके हैं।

ब्रेड बनाने के लिए मुख्य रूप से पोटाशियम ब्रोमेट और पोटैशियम आयोडेट का प्रयोग होता है। पोटैशियम ब्रोमेट वह केमिकल है जिसके लगातार शरीर में जाने से कैंसर होने का खतरा बढ़ जाता है। इसी तरह पोटाशिम आयोडाइड से थायराइड से संबंधित दिक्कतें होती हैं। पोटैशियम ब्रोमेट पेट के कैंसर और किडनी की पथरी जैसी बीमारियों से भी जुड़ा हुआ है। इसके खाने से थायराइड ग्लैंड में गड़बड़ी होने लगती है। चूंकि ब्रेड एक ऐसी चीज है जिसे लोग और बच्चे भी लगातार रोज खाते हैं। इसीलिए इस से होने वाले खतरे को अनदेखा नहीं किया जा सकता।

अब प्रश्न ये उठता है कि, अगर यह केमिकल इतने खतरनाक है तो ब्रेड बनाने वाली कंपनियां इसका प्रयोग क्यों करती है ? कंपनियां ब्रेड बनाने वाले मैदे में इन केमिकल्स को इसलिए मिलाती है, जिससे ब्रेड सफेद और मुलायम होता है। साथ ही बेहतर ढंग से फूलता है।

हानिकारक केमिकल्स के बारे में ब्रेड की जांच करने पर यह बात भी पता चली कि, ज्यादा सफेद और मुलायम दिखने वाले ब्रेड ज्यादा खतरनाक हैं। वहीं आटे से बनी ब्राउन ब्रेड और मल्टी ग्रेन ब्रेड में हानिकारक केमिकल्स की मात्रा कम पाई गई।

भारत में अभी भी पोटाशियम ब्रोमेट और पोटैशियम आयोडेट प्रयोग सरलता से हो रहा है। विश्व के कई देशों में ब्रेड और बेकरी की अन्य चीज बनाने में इन केमिकल्स के प्रयोग पर पहले ही प्रतिबन्ध लग चुका है।

पोटाशियम ब्रोमेट और पोटैशियम आयोडेट के प्रयोग में अमेरिका, इंग्लैंड, कनाडा, ऑस्ट्रेलिया, चीन, श्रीलंका, ब्राजील, नाइजीरिया, पेरू और कोलंबिया आदि पूर्ण प्रतिबंध है।

जबकि भारत में खाने-पीने की चीजों पर निगरानी रखने वाली संस्था FSSAI इस मामले में अभी तक आंखें मूंद रखी हैं। और ना ही किसी तरह की चेतावनी देती नजर आती है। जिससे भारत में कई विषाक्त कैमिकल का प्रयोग भोज्य पदार्थो में किया जा रहा है।

ब्रेड में विषाक्त कामिकल और उसके दुष्परिणामो की स्टडी में मुख्य भूमिका निभाने वाले सेंटर फॉर साइंस एंड इनवायरमेंट के चंद्रभूषण बताते है कि, एक नहीं बल्कि सभी रिसर्च यह प्रमाणित हो चुका है की पोटैशियम ब्रोमेट पेट के कैंसर और किडनी की पथरी जैसी बीमारियों से जुड़ा हुआ है। इसी तरह से ब्रेड में पोटाशियम आयोडेट होने से शरीर में जरूरत से ज्यादा आयोडीन चला जाता है।

चंद्रभूषण बताते हैं कि, उनकी जांच के लिए सैंपल सिर्फ दिल्ली से उठाए गए थे, लेकिन हालत पूरे देश में लगभग एक जैसे ही हैं। क्योंकि ब्रेड बनाने वाली ज्यादातर कंपनियां पूरे देश में एक जैसा ब्रेड ही सप्लाई करती हैं।

अधिकतर कंपनियां ब्रेड के पैकेट पर यह लिखती तक नहीं है कि, वह अपने ब्रेड में पोटाशियम ब्रोमेट और पोटासियम आयोडेट का प्रयोग करती हैं।

केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य मंत्री जेपी नड्डा ने कहा है कि, उन्हें ब्रेड के बारे में इस स्टडी की जानकारी दी गई है। लोगों को घबराने की जरूरत नहीं है। इस पूरे मामले की जांच करने के बाद सरकार इस बारे में जरूरी कदम उठाएगी।

सेंटर फॉर साइंस एंड इनवायरमेंट ने जांच के लिए दिल्ली में भिन्न भिन्न स्थानों से ब्रेड के 38 सैंपल उठाए थे। इन सैंपलो में ब्रिटेनिया, हार्वेस्टर गोल्ड, इंग्लिश ओवन, परफेक्ट प्रीमियम जैसे लोकप्रिय ब्रांड थे। और स्टडी में इनके ब्रेड में भी यह केमिकल पाए गए।

इस स्टडी के अनुसार मात्र ब्रेड ही नही बल्कि तमाम फास्ट फूड और बर्गर की लोकप्रिय ब्रांड के बन और बर्गर में भी यह हानिकारक कैमिकल पाए गए है।

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), the number of individuals with diabetes in 2011 crossed 366 million, with an estimated 4.6 million deaths each year [2]. The Indian subcontinent has emerged as the capital of this diabetes epidemic. The reported prevalence of diabetes in adults between the ages of 20 and 79 is as follows: India 8.31%, Bangladesh 9.85%, Nepal 3.03%, Sri Lanka 7.77%, and Pakistan 6.72% [3].

Indians show a significantly higher age-related prevalence of diabetes when compared with several other populations [4]. For a given BMI, Asian Indians display a higher insulin level which is an indicator of peripheral insulin resistance.
A wide collection of plant-derived active principles representing numerous bioactive compounds have established their role for possible use in the treatment of diabetes [10].
The most common and effective antidiabetic medicinal plants of Indian origin are Babul (Acacia arabica), bael(Aegle marmelose), church steeples (Agrimonia eupatoria), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), ghrita kumara (Aloe vera), neem (Azadirachta indica), ash gourd (Benincasa hispida), Beetroot (Beta vulgaris), fever nut (Caesalpinia bonducella), bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis), ivy gourd (Coccinia indica), eucalyptus(Eucalyptus globules), banyan tree (Ficus benghalenesis), gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre), gurhal (Hibiscus rosa-sinesis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), purging Nut (Jatropha curcas), mango (Mangifera indica), karela(Momordica charantia), mulberry (Morus alba), kiwach (Mucuna pruriens), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), bisasar(Pterocarpus marsupium), anar (Punica granatum), jamun (Syzygium cumini), giloy (Tinospora cordifolia), and methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum). All these plants are a rich source of phytochemicals.

2. Indian Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Potential

2.1. Ficus religiosa
Ficus religiosa, commonly known as peepal in India, belongs to family Moraceae. Ficus religiosa has been reported to be used in the traditional system of Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes [11]. F. religiosa has been shown to possess a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities: antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antitumor, antiulcer, antianxiety, anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, immunomodulatory, estrogenic, endothelin receptor antagonist, apoptosis inducer, cognitive enhancer, and antihypertensive [12].
Decoction prepared from the bark is used in treatment of diabetes [13]. The plant is believed to contain several bioactive principles including tannins, saponins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, and sterols. Sitosterol-d-glucoside present in the bark of Ficus religiosa is believed to elicit hypoglycemic activity in rabbits [14]. The bioactive components present in Ficus are leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnoside [1516]. The phytoconstituents present in Ficus can impart a significant antidiabetic effect. It has been reported to contain phytosterols, flavonoids, tannins, and furanocoumarin derivatives, namely, bergapten and bergaptol [17].
The leaves of Ficus religiosa have also been studied for antihyperglycemic activity [18]. Oral incorporation of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa for 21 days caused a significant lowering in blood glucose levels, and an elevated level of insulin has been observed. The skeletal muscle is an important site for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Decrease in muscle and hepatic glycogen in diabetes was observed to be corrected by peepal extract [1920].
Secondary complications of diabetes that is hypercholesteremia and hypertriglyceridemia were found to decrease through significantly reduced serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in STZ-diabetic rats [21]. Administration of aqueous extract of bark at the dose of 500 mg/kg has been reported to ameliorate blood glucose level, hepatic enzymes, and lipid parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats [22].
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiologies in the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. F. religiosa has been reported to modulate the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. Restoration of glutathione and inhibition of malondialdehyde content has shown the antioxidative property ofFicus religiosa [23].
2.2. Eugenia jambolana
Eugenia jambolana (black plum or jamun) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. The most commonly used plant parts are seeds, leaves, fruits, and bark. Eugenia jambolana is an evergreen tropical tree of 8 to 15 m height, with smooth, glossy turpentine-smelling leaves. The bark is scaly gray, and the trunk is forked. There are fragrant white flowers in branched clusters at stem tips and purplish-black oval edible berries. The berries contain only one seed. The taste is generally acidic to fairly sweet but astringent. This tree is known to have grown in Indian subcontinent and in other regions of South Asia such as Nepal, Burma, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh from ancient time.
Jamun has been reported to be used in numerous complementary and alternative medicine systems of India and, before the discovery of insulin, was a frontline antidiabetic medication even in Europe. The brew prepared by jamun seeds in boiling water has been used in the various traditional systems of medicine in India [24].
Eugenia jambolana is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and several other diseases. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and hydrolysable tannins (1-0-galloyl castalagin and casuarinin). The seeds also contain alkaloid jambosine and glycoside jamboline, which slows down the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar [25].
The whole plant of Eugenia jambolana is reported to show antioxidative defence due to numerous phytochemical constituents present in it. The bark of jamun is rich in several bioactive compounds including quercetin, betulinic acid, B- sitosterol, eugenin, ellagic and gallic acid [26], bergenin [27], tannins [28], and flavonoids. Fruits contain glucose, fructose, raffinose [29], malic acid [30], and anthocyanins [31]; leaves are rich in acylated flavonol glycosides [32], quercetin, myricetin, and tannins [33] all of which have hypoglycemic ability.
The blood glucose-lowering effect of Eugenia jambolana may be due to increased secretion of insulin from the pancreas or by inhibition of insulin degradation [34]. Eugenia jambolana is also reported to have lipid-lowering effect evidenced by reduction of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids [35]. This effect has been reported to be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides in the extract which is reported to decrease the activity of enzyme 3-HMG Co-A reductase in liver [36]. Eugenia jambolana seed extract is reported to reduce blood pressure probably due to the ellagic acid present in it [33].
Addition of ethanolic extract of seeds and seed powder of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction in blood sugar level and enhancement in the histopathology of pancreatic islets [37]. Decrease in glycosuria and blood urea levels has also been reported. Similar kind of results has also been reported in numerous studies done on dogs and rabbits [3839].
Eugenia jambolana fruit juice is diuretic and has been reported to provide a soothing effect on human digestive system [40]. The gastroprotective effect has also been reported in jamun seeds. Elevation of antioxidant status and mucosal defensive properties might be the possible mechanisms behind gastroprotective properties present in jamun. Presence of flavanoids in the seeds provides the gastric ulcer protective activity to jamun [40]. Jamun shows antiviral activity against goat pox and the highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus [4142].
The efficacy of Eugenia jambolana has also been tested in preclinical and clinical studies [4344] for hypolipidemic [45], anti-inflammatory, [46], neuropsychopharmacological [47], antiulcer, [48], antibacterial [49], anti-HIV [50], antidiarrhoeal [49], and antihypertensive activities [47].
2.3. Momordica charantia
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd or karela) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. Fruit as a whole and fruit’s seeds are the parts most frequently used for therapeutic benefits. Momordica charantia is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and related conditions amongst the indigenous population of Asia, South America, and East Africa. It is often used as a vegetable in diet. Bitter gourd contains bioactive substances with antidiabetic potential such as vicine, charantin, and triterpenoids along with some antioxidants [51]. Several preclinical studies have documented the antidiabetic and hypoglycaemic effects ofMomordica charantia through various hypothesised mechanisms [52].
Several studies have demonstrated antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities, in Momordica charantia [5354]; however, the antidiabetic activity has been widely reviewed. In several animal studies, bitter gourd has been reported to ameliorate the metabolic syndrome, where diabetes is one of the risk factors [5557]. In a study conducted on Taiwanese adults, a significant reduction in waist circumference, improvement in diabetes, and symptoms of metabolic syndrome has been observed [58].
The hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of bitter melon have been observed [59]. Studies have shown that Momordica charantia can repair damaged β-cells thereby stimulating insulin levels [60] and also improve sensitivity/signalling of insulin [57]. Bitter gourd is also reported to inhibit absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and suppressing the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine [61].
Ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia is reported to show antihyperglycemic effect in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats which might be due to inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase and also stimulation of the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [62]. Studies have reported that triterpenoids may be the hypoglycemic components present in karela which could be responsible for activation of AMP-activated protein kinase [63]. The blood glucose-lowering activity of karela has been reported in several animal models [64].
Bitter melon is also effective in loosening adiposity. It is reported to decrease the weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues [54]. Bitter melon is found effective in augmenting skeletal muscle strength, an effect which could be due to higher mRNA expression for the glucose transporter 4 [55]. Extracts/fractions of Antidesma madagascariense and Momordica charantia were found to significantly inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase, a key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme. However, glycogen-loaded mice showed significant depressive effect on increasing the level of postprandial blood glucose after ingestion of Momordica charantia [65]. Presence of saponins to some extent might justify the inhibitory activities on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Saponins are also supposed to stimulate insulin secretion [66].
2.4. Ocimum sanctum
Ocimum sanctum L. (holy basil or tulsi) belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Every part of the plant is used as a therapeutic agent against several diseases. Ocimum (holy basil) is reported to grow worldwide. Nutritional and chemical composition of holy basil makes it a plant with immense potential. Eugenol, the active constituent present in O. sanctum L., has been found to be responsible for its therapeutic potential [67]. Major bioactive constituents present in the leaves and stems of holy basil include flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, isothymusin, isothymonin, cirsimaritin, orientin, and vicenin. Tulsi leaves oil contains eugenol, ursolic acid, carvacrol, linalool, limatrol, and caryophyllene along with eugenol. Seeds oil is known to have fatty acids and sitosterol while seed mucilage contains some sugars. Anthocyanins are present in green leaves. Furthermore, tulsi is also rich in vitamins, minerals, chlorophyll, and many other phytonutrients.
Antidiabetic properties of tulsi were appreciated in Ayurveda [68]. A significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and urea along with a simultaneous increase in glycogen, hemoglobin, and protein in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been observed when rats were supplemented with ethanolic extract ofO. sanctum [69]. Leaf extract of O. sanctum L has been reported to stimulate the physiological pathways of insulin secretion [70]. O. sanctum L. showed serum glucose-lowering effect when the extract was given to normal rats for 30 days [71]. O. sanctum L. is reported to reduce the serum level of cortisol and glucose in male mice showing its antiperoxidative effect [72].
Studies have reported that oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves of O. sanctum L. significantly reduced blood sugar level in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycemic, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Improvement in the action of exogenous insulin in normal rats has also been recorded [73]. Mixed extract of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has been recorded to not only rectify dyslipidemia but also restore the endogenous antioxidant levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [74].
Chloroform extracts of aerial parts of tulsi have been able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused due to diabetes mellitus in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract significantly decreased elevated level of serum glucose and also reversed the cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL values [75].
The hydroalcoholic extract of O. sanctum L. given to stress-induced male Wister rats is reported to significantly prevent the chronic resistant stress induced rise in plasma cAMP level, myocardial superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities [76]. Ursolic acid isolated from O. sanctum L. has been reported to protect heart cells from Adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation [77]. O. sanctum L is also used to control blood cholesterol. A marked decrease in serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL + VLDL cholesterol as compared to untreated cholesterol-fed group was observed in cholesterol-fed rabbits when supplemented with O. sanctum L. seed oil for four weeks [78]. A similar kind of study performed on normal albino rabbits showed lowered levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, and LDL-cholesterol and a significant boost in the HDL-cholesterol and total fecal sterol contents with incorporation of fresh leaves of tulsi [79].
Along with antidiabetic and cardioprotective effects, O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to acquire antifungal [80], antimicrobial [81], analgesic [82], anthelmintic [83], antistress [9], antifertility [84], anti-inflammatory [85], antioxidant [7886], gastroprotective [87], immunomodulatory [88], antithyroidic [89], anticancer [90], and radioprotective effects [9192]. Tulsi is reported to provide a protection for central nervous system [93] and against sexually transmitted diseases [94].
2.5. Pterocarpus marsupium
Pterocarpus marsupium (indian kino tree, bijasar) belongs to the family Fabaceae. Plant parts used most commonly are heart wood, leaves, flowers, bark, and gum. Pterocarpus marsupium grows very well in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. As per Ayurveda, it is one of the most versatile medicinal plants with a wide spectrum of biological activities. Every part of the tree has been acknowledged for its therapeutic potential. This tree grows up to 30 metres in height. Compositional studies on bijasar have shown this plant to be a good source of polyphenols. P. marsupium contains terpenoids and phenolic compounds: β-sitosterol, lupenol, aurone glycosides, epicatechins, and iso-flavonoids [9596].
P. marsupium is known for its antidiabetic activity [97]. Besides eliciting a strong antidiabetic property,Pterocarpus marsupium is reported to be effective against several diseases. It is reported to be antiobesity, antihyperlipidemic [98], anti-inflammatory, anthelmentic [99100], antioxidative, antitumorigenic and antiulcerative [71101].
Pterocarpus marsupium is reported to have not only hypoglycemic property but also β-cell protective and regenerative properties [102], effects which have been attributed to the flavonoid content in the plant. Complete restoration of normal insulin secretion and regeneration of beta cells have been reported in various experimental models of diabetes [103104]. A methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium when supplemented for 7 and 14 days to STZ-diabetic rats showed normalization of streptozotocin-distressed serum glucose by correcting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum protein, insulin, alkaline and acid phosphatase, and albumin levels [105].
The blood sugar-lowering activity has been endorsed to be due to the presence of tannates in the extract of the plant. Antihyperlipidemic activity is contributed probably to the marsupin, pterosupin, and liquiritigenin present in the plant [106]. (−) Epicatechin has been shown to have insulinogenic property by enhancing insulin release and conversion of proinsulin to insulin. (−) Epicatechin has also been shown to possess insulin-like activity [107108]. Epicatechin has also been shown to strengthen the insulin signalling by activating key proteins of that pathway and regulating glucose production through AKT and AMPK modulation in HepG2 cells [109].
2.6. Trigonella foenum-graecum
Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek, methi) belongs to the family Fabaceae. Seeds and leaves are the most frequently used parts of the plant. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is cultivated throughout India and in some other parts of the world as a semiarid crop [80]. It is used both as a vegetable and as a spice in India. Fenugreek is well known for its pungent aromatic properties, and it is a flavoring agent in food [110]. Studies on different experimental models have proved that fenugreek has strong antidiabetic properties [111112]. Human studies have also confirmed the glucose and lipid-lowering ability of fenugreek [113].
Several studies have demonstrated that fenugreek seed extract, mucilage of seeds, and leaves can decrease blood glucose and cholesterol levels in humans and experimental diabetic animals [114115]. The therapeutic potential of fenugreek is primarily due to the presence of saponins [116], 4-hydroxyisoleucine [117], and trigonelline, an alkaloid [118] and a high-fiber content [119].
The antihyperglycemic effect has been correlated with decline in somatostatin and high plasma glucagon levels [120]. Fenugreek seed powder has been shown to normalize the activity of creatinine kinase in liver, skeletal muscles, and heart of diabetic rats [121]. The antihyperglycemic effect of fenugreek has been hypothesized to be due to the amino acid 4-hydroxyisoleucine which acts by the enhancement of insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in peripheral tissues [122]. The steroids present in methi have been reported to reduce blood glucose level when supplemented to diabetic rats [123]. A considerable increment of the area of insulin-immunoreactive β cells has been observed [124].
A study on intestinal and renal disaccharidases activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats proved the beneficial effects of fenugreek seed mucilage by enhancing the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes [125]. The optimistic influence of fenugreek supplementation on intestinal and renal disaccharidases has been reported [126]. A marked reduction in renal toxicity has been observed when fenugreek oil is incorporated in the diet of alloxanized rats [125].
2.7. Gymnema sylvestre
Gymnema sylvestre (gurmar) belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is a herb native to the tropical forests of India and Sri Lanka. G. sylvestre is a large climber, with roots at nodes. It is a potent antidiabetic plant used in ayurvedic preparations. Several studies have proved its antidiabetic potential in animal models [125]; when combined with acarbose it is reported to reduce intestinal transport of maltose in rats [127]. Absorption of free oleic acid in rats has also been reduced [128].
Aqueous extract of G. sylvestre has been reported to cause reversible increases in intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in mouse and human β cells with type 2 diabetes [129]. Regeneration of the cells in the pancreas might raise the insulin levels [130]. G. sylvestre can also help prevent adrenal hormones from stimulating the liver to produce glucose in mice, thereby reducing blood sugar levels [131]. A group of triterpene saponins, known as gymnemic acids and gymnemasaponins are found to be present in G. sylvestrewhich are responsible for the reported pharmacological properties.
Oral administration of Gymnema is reported to be effective against chronic inflammation [132], obesity [133,134], and pancreatic β cell dysfunction [135]. G. sylvestre suspension shows tremendous diabetic potential against alloxan-induced diabetic albino male rats [136]. The hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of G. sylvestre is reported to be due to enhanced effect of insulin which comes into play by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from β cells or its release from the bound form [130137138]. A significant correlation between the good glycemic control and phospholipid levels has been observed [139]. Oral administration of G. sylvestre to rats has been reported to result in increased utilization of glucose and/or by decreasing mobilization of fat [136]. A significant reduction in body weight, plasma proteins, and total hemoglobin levels has also been observed [136].
2.8. Allium sativum
Allium sativum (garlic) commonly called lahsun belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae. Leaves and bulb are the parts frequently used. As per Ayurveda it is a miraculous plant used against a variety of problems including insect bites, intestinal worms, headache, and tumors [140]. Garlic is also used in folk medicine for the management of cardiac diseases, cancer, parasitic, fungal diseases, and diabetes [141142]. The principle bioactive components present in garlic are allicin, allixin, ajoene, and other organosulphur compounds.
Biological and therapeutic functions of garlic are basically due to the organosulphur compounds they possess [143]. These chemical components are thought to exhibit numerous biological effects including lowering of cholesterol and glucose, cancer prevention, and antimicrobial properties [144]. Studies have proved that the consumption of garlic significantly decreased fasting blood sugar levels [145]. Diallyl trisulfide has been proved to improve glycemic control in STZ-induced diabetic rats. [146] Incorporation of garlic juice resulted in better utilization of glucose in glucose tolerance tests performed in rabbits, while allicin at a dose of 250 mg/kg was 60% as effective as tolbutamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits [147].
Garlic may act as an antidiabetic agent by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from the β cells or the release of bound insulin [148]. Allicin is supposed to enhance serum insulin by combining with cysteine and sparing it from SH group reactions [147]. The beneficial effects of N-acetylcysteine, an organosulfur from allium plants, on serum lipids and glucose are related to its antioxidant property. N-Acetylcysteine is reported to reduce the oxidative stress by improving the endogenous antioxidant defences [149].
Allicin, a sulfur-containing compound, is responsible for the pungent flavour and significant hypoglycemic activity in garlic. This effect is supposed to be due to enhanced hepatic metabolism, release of insulin, and/or insulin-sparing effect [150151]. S-allyl cystein sulfoxide the precursor of allicin is reported to control lipid peroxidation and hyperglycemia in rats [152].
Cardiovascular complications of diabetes are reported to be prevented by the consumption of garlic [153]. Saponins are reported to reduce serum cholesterol levels [154]. Garlic juice has been found to exert antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [155].
Phytochemicals present in garlic also show antioxidative property evidenced by scavenging of reactive oxygen species [156] and increasing cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase [157]. Garlic alone and with ginger and turmeric when tested against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide diabetic rats showed 80–97% increment in the signs of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, 26–37% increase in the production of insulin and enrichment in the antioxidant defence system along with a 60–97% decrease in lipid peroxidation [158]. Administration of raw garlic homogenate was found to normalise both hepatic TBARS and GSH levels and also improve insulin sensitivity and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats [159]. Numerous studies report that aged garlic extract inhibit the generation of glycation-derived free radicals and AGEs in vitro. S-Allyl cysteine, one of the bioactive ingredients of aged garlic, is a known antioxidant that possesses the capacity to inhibit AGEs synthesis [160].